Preadolescent health risk behavior as a function of prenatal cocaine exposure and gender.
ABSTRACT To examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on health risk behaviors during preadolescence.
The present study examined prenatal cocaine exposure, gender, and environmental risk as predictors of self-reported substance use, aggression, and a disregard for safety precautions on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a sample of 10.5 year olds (n = 154, including 60 who were prenatally exposed to cocaine).
Gender tended to moderate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure because exposure effects were found for boys but not girls. Boys who were prenatally exposed to cocaine reported engaging in more high-risk behavior. In examining individual outcomes, cocaine exposed boys had the highest scores for aggression, substance use, and a disregard for safety precautions, although these differences were significant only for the composite health risk behavior measure.
The findings extend earlier work showing that prenatal cocaine exposure places boys at risk for problems of inhibitory control, emotional regulation, and antisocial behavior. Research is needed to examine whether the effects of prenatal cocaine on health risk behaviors persist into adolescence, when such behaviors tend to increase.
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ABSTRACT: Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at increased risk for behavioral problems due to disruptions of monaminergically regulated arousal systems and/or environmental conditions. To assess behavioral outcomes of cocaine (CE) and non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) children, 4 through 10 years old, controlling for other prenatal drug exposures and environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES), primarily African American children (n=381 (193 (CE), 188 (NCE)) were recruited from birth. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses were used to assess the predictive relationship of prenatal cocaine exposure to odds of caregiver reported clinically elevated behavioral problems at 4, 6, 9 and 10y ears of age, controlling for confounders. Prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with increased rates of caregiver reported delinquency (OR=1.93, CI: 1.09-3.42, p<0.02). A significant prenatal cocaine exposure by sex interaction was found for delinquency indicating that only females were affected (OR=3.57, CI: 1.67-7.60, p<0.001). There was no effect of cocaine on increased odds of other CBCL subscales. Higher prenatal tobacco exposure was associated with increased odds of externalizing symptoms at 4, 9 and 10 years of age. For CE children, those in foster or adoptive care were rated as having more behavior problems than those in biologic mother or relative care. Greater caregiver psychological distress was associated with increased behavioral problems. There were no independent effects of elevated blood lead level on increased behavior problems after control for prenatal drug exposure and other environmental conditions. Prenatal cocaine and tobacco exposure were associated with greater externalizing behavior after control for multiple prenatal drug exposures, other environmental and caregiving factors and lead exposure from 4 through 10 years of age. Greater caregiver psychological distress negatively affected caregiver ratings of all CBCL domains. Since cocaine and tobacco use during pregnancy and maternal psychological distress have the potential to be altered through prenatal educational, drug treatment and mental health interventions, they warrant attention in efforts to reduce rates of problem behaviors in children.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 03/2010; 32(4):443-51. · 2.98 Impact Factor
Article: Adolescent initiation of licit and illicit substance use: Impact of intrauterine exposures and post-natal exposure to violence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents, recruited at term birth, until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the "any" summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and post-natal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 33(1):100-9. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 33(1):110-9. · 2.98 Impact Factor