Nutritional Supplementation and Anabolic Steroid Use in Adolescents

Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628, USA.
Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 02/2008; 40(1):15-24. DOI: 10.1249/mss.0b013e31815a5181
Source: PubMed


To examine nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroid (AS) use in adolescent males and females in a multistate, cross-regional study. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, beliefs, and sources of education on nutritional supplementation and AS in these students.
A confidential self-report survey was administered to 3248 students representing grades 8-12 in 12 states in the continental United States by their teachers during homeroom or physical education class.
Use of at least one supplement was reported by 71.2% of the adolescents surveyed. The most popular supplements used were multivitamins and high-energy drinks. The use of supplements to increase body mass and strength, and to reduce body fat or mass, increased across grade and was more prevalent in males than females. The number of students that self-reported AS use was 1.6% (2.4% males and 0.8% females). The number of supplements used was related to AS use among adolescents, and this effect was greater among males. Adolescents also seemed willing to take more risks with supplements to achieve their fitness or athletic goals, even if these risks reduced health or caused premature death.
This study demonstrates that reliance on nutritional supplements increases as adolescents mature. The apparent willingness of adolescents to use a supplement that may harm their health or shorten their life highlights the need for greater involvement of teachers, coaches, and physicians to provide continued education on the risks and benefits associated with nutritional supplementation and AS use.

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Available from: Jay R Hoffman, May 05, 2014
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    • "This need is further emphasised by the continued pervasiveness of doping in elite sport (see Striegel et al. 2010), and prevalence rates in non-elite adolescent populations that suggest doping may be becoming a public health issue (e.g. Hoffman et al. 2008). By extending current knowledge on the psychosocial processes that facilitate PED use in sport and exercise, we believe the current findings make an important contribution to the collective efforts of researchers working towards the development of interventions aimed at deterring PED use. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study qualitatively investigated psychosocial processes that support performance enhancing drug use in athletes from a range of sports, using Bandura’s social cognitive theory of moral thought and action as the guiding theoretical framework. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve male athletes from a variety of sports who had used illicit performance enhancing substances within the previous two years. Interviews centred on the psychological and social processes that facilitated the athletes’ introduction to, and continuation of, doping. Study data were content analysed deductively using definitions for the eight mechanisms of moral disengagement (MD), as well as three further themes relevant to Bandura’s theory. Data analysis provided evidence for seven mechanisms of MD (i.e. moral justification, euphemistic labelling, advantageous comparison, displacement of responsibility, diffusion of responsibility, distortion of consequences, and attribution of blame) and all three of the additional themes (i.e. routinisation, family and friends, and sliding scale). The mechanisms and themes varied in their frequency of use, and were discussed with reference to Bandura’s theory, as well as other relevant literature on doping in sport.
    Qualitiative Research in Sport 04/2014; 7(5):1-20. DOI:10.1080/2159676X.2014.992039
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    • "However, knowledge of negative side effects of supplement use is generally poor, as evidenced by one study, in which none of the adolescents could name any potential risks or negative side effects of the supplements and nutritional products that they were consuming [21]. Research from the USA reported that 14.7% of young males in grades 8–12 stated that they would take a pill or potion that was guaranteed to help them meet their fitness goals, even if it would harm their health and 8.6% indicated that they would do so even if it shortened their life [22]. Nilsson and colleagues (2005) also found that those Swedish young men who had taken steroids were less likely to believe that these drugs were harmful [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p < .001), indicating that the young men who were more dissatisfied with their bodies were more likely to support the use of doping in sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (etap2 = .01, p < .01) and vitamin/mineral supplements (etap2 = .01, p < .01) were also significantly more supportive of doping in sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 03/2014; 11(1):13. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-11-13 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "After a multivitamin, energy drinks (ED) are the most popular dietary supplement in the young adult population [1,2]. Despite their popularity, sparse data exists to support the efficacy and cardiovascular effects, especially in younger adults, which is the target audience [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, there are few studies on the cardiovascular and fatigue effects of commercially available energy drinks. This study investigated the effects of Monster energy drink (Monster Beverage Corporation, Corona, California), on resting heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), ride time-to-exhaustion, peak exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and peak rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The study used a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design. After an 8-hr fast, 15 subjects consumed Monster Energy Drink (ED standardized to 2.0 mg * kg-1 caffeine) or a flavor-matched placebo preexercise. Resting HR and HRV were determined. After an initial submaximal workload for 30 minutes, subjects completed 10 min at 80% ventilatory threshold (VT) and rode until volitional fatigue at 100% VT. Resting HR was significantly different (ED: 65+/-10 bpm vs. placebo: 58+/-8 bpm, p = 0.02), but resting HRV was not different between the energy drink and placebo trials. Ride time-to-exhaustion was not significantly different between trials (ED: 45.5+/- 9.8 vs. placebo: 43.8+/-9.3 min, p = 0.62). No difference in peak RPE (ED: 9.1 +/- 0.5 vs. placebo: 9.0 +/- 0.8, p = 1.00) nor peak HR (ED: 177 +/- 11 vs. placebo: 175 +/- 12, p = 0.73) was seen. The RER at 30% of VT was significantly different (ED: 0.94 +/- 0.06 vs. placebo: 0.91 +/- 0.05, p = 0.046), but no difference between the two conditions were seen at the other intensities. Although preexercise ingestion of the energy drink does increase resting HR there was no alteration in HRV parameters. Ride time-to-exhaustion was not enhanced.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 01/2014; 11(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-11-2 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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