The PRICE study (Protection Rest Ice Compression Elevation): Design of a randomised controlled trial comparing standard versus cryokinetic ice applications in the management of acute ankle sprain [ISRCTN13903946]

Health & Rehabilitation Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, UK.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (Impact Factor: 1.72). 12/2007; 8(1):125. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-125
Source: PubMed


Cryotherapy (the application of ice for therapeutic purposes) is one of the most common treatment modalities employed in the immediate management of acute soft tissue injury. Despite its widespread clinical use, the precise physiological responses to therapeutic cooling have not been fully elucidated, and effective evidence-based treatment protocols are yet to be established. Intermittent ice applications are thought to exert a significant analgesic effect. This could facilitate earlier therapeutic exercise after injury, potentially allowing for a quicker return to activity. The primary aim of the forthcoming study is therefore to examine the safety and effectiveness of combining intermittent ice applications with periods of therapeutic exercise in the first week after an acute ankle sprain.
The study is a randomised controlled trial. 120 subjects with an acute grade I or grade II ankle sprain will be recruited from Accident & Emergency and a University based Sports Injury Clinic. Subjects will be randomised under strict double-blind conditions to either a standard cryotherapy (intermittent ice applications with compression) or cryokinetic treatment group (intermittent ice applications with compression and therapeutic exercise). After the first week, treatment will be standardised across groups. Assessor blinding will be maintained throughout the trial. Primary outcome will be function, assessed using the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS). Additional outcomes will include pain (10 cm Visual Analogue Scale), swelling (modified figure-of-eight method) and activity levels (activPALtrade mark physical activity monitor, PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK). Diagnostic Ultrasound (Episcan-1-200 high frequency ultrasound scanning system, Longport International Ltd, PA) will also be used to assess the degree of soft tissue injury. After baseline assessment subjects will be followed up at 1, 2, 3 & 4 weeks post injury. All data will be analysed using repeated measures analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA).
This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial which will examine the effectiveness of two different cryotherapy protocols in the early management of acute ankle sprain.

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Available from: Domhnall Macauley, Apr 16, 2014
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    • "Bleakley and Costello (2013) reported some concern regarding the return to exercise after cooling and advised more careful use of cryotherapy before activities that demand good sensory-motor control in order to protect the physical integrity of the athlete. Bleakley and Costello (2013) also referred to a growing trend in the application of cold prior to exercise; however, these authors suggested that the benefits of its use should compensate for any deleterious physiological effect, as it is associated with a decrease in nerve conduction velocity (Herrera, Sandoval, Camargo, & Salvini, 2011) and muscle contraction (Bleakley et al., 2007) and changes in training and physical performance (Stacey, Gibala, Ginis, & Timmnos, 2010). In contrast, no changes were observed after cooling in the joint proprioception function (Costello, Algar, & Donnelly, 2012), balance (Rupp, Herman, Hertel, & Saliba, 2012) or in the EMG response (Berg, Hart, Palmieri-Smith, Cross, & Ingersoll, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold-water immersion on the electromyographic (EMG) response of the lower limb and balance during unipodal jump landing. The evaluation comprised 40 individuals (20 basketball players and 20 non-athletes). The EMG response in the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus, rectus femoris, hamstring and gluteus medius; amplitude and mean speed of the centre of pressure, flight time and ground reaction force (GRF) were analysed. All volunteers remained for 20 min with their ankle immersed in cold-water, and were re-evaluated immediately post and after 10, 20 and 30 min of reheating. The Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman test and Dunn's post test (P < 0.05) were used. The EMG response values decreased for the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus and rectus femoris of both athletes and non-athletes (P < 0.05). The comparison between the groups showed that the EMG response was lower for the athletes. Lower jump flight time and GRF, greater amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure were predominant in the athletes. Cold-water immersion decreased the EMG activity of the lower limb, flight time and GRF and increased the amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/02640414.2015.1054861 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "In both cases, patients develop physical consequences before reaching adulthood, that require physiotherapy treatment to improve and maintain joint function [25]. Physiotherapy through the RICE method (Rest, Ice, Compression , and Elevation) has been described for the improvement of acute joint injuries [26], as well as in the management of hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia [27]. Treatment of the ankle with physical therapy is complicated because it involves a small joint surface that bears significant ranges of body weight and the joint limitation alters biomechanical movement during walking. "
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    ABSTRACT: Haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle causes pain and deterioration in gait, causing disability. Although some physiotherapy modalities are effective in the management of acute bleeding, the results are unknown in chronic arthropathy. Our objective was to determine the most effective physiotherapy procedures for treating the haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle and to assess the methodological quality of the studies. A systematic review was carried out in the Cochrane Database, PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PEDro, TESEO, and specialized journals (Haemophilia and Haematologica). It included articles with at least one group undergoing any kind of physiotherapy treatment and with pretest and posttest evaluation, published before April 2013. An analysis of variables was performed and assessed the methodological quality of studies. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion. Hydrotherapy treatments, strength training and balance strength, balance training, and sports therapy, have improved range of movement, pain, balance, and subjective physical performance. The proposed methodological analysis was not possible due to the low quality of the studies. Although the results are positive, they lack rigorous evidence on the effects of treatments. Studies are needed to establish the efficacy of the various forms of physiotherapy in the haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle.
    08/2013; 2013:305249. DOI:10.1155/2013/305249
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    • "Despite the widespread use of cryotherapy, there are still differences of opinion in the literature concerning the effectiveness of its various application methods and the quantification of variables such as frequency, duration and best time for use. The cryotherapy application time ranges between 10 and 20 minutes, from two to four times a day.10,12 "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cryotherapy effectiveness in the immediate postoperative period of ACL reconstruction to improve pain and range of motion (ROM) of the knee. This is a pilot study of a prospective and randomized clinical trial. Patients (n=25) were divided into two groups: Intervention (A) group (n=10): patients were submitted to an inpatient physical therapy protocol and received ice compress for 20 minutes, twice a day; Control (B) group (n=9): patients had the same protocol, twice a day. The pain intensity was evaluated with the visual analogic scale (VAS) and range of motion was measured with a goniometer. The Intervention (A) group had important absolute and percentual improvement when compared with the Control (B) group regarding measures of pain and knee flexion/extension ROM. Cryotherapy in the immediate postoperative period of ACL reconstruction was effective to improve pain and range of motion of the knee. Level of Evidence I, Randomized Clinical Trial .
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