Expressed sequence tags from the midgut of Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).
ABSTRACT The midgut is a key tissue in insect science. Physiological roles include digestion and peritrophic membrane function, as well as being an important target for insecticides. We used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to identify candidate genes and gene families involved in these processes in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Two cDNA libraries were constructed from dissected midgut of third to fifth instar larvae. Clustering analysis of 6416 expressed sequence tags produced 1178 tentative unique genes comprising 725 tentative contigs and 453 singletons. The sequences show similar codon usage to sequences from other lepidopterans, a Kozak consensus sequence similar to Drosophila and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected at a frequency of 1.35/kb. The identity of the most common Interpro families correlates well with major known functions of the midgut. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on representative sequences from selected multigene families. Gene families include a broad range of digestive proteases, lipases and carbohydrases that appear to have degradative capacity against the major food components found in leaves, the diet of these larvae; and carboxylesterases, glutathione-S-transferases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, potentially involved in xenobiotic degradation. Two of the larger multigene families, serine proteases and lipases, expressed a high proportion of genes that are likely to be catalytically inactive.
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ABSTRACT: We have used the differential display of mRNAs technique to identify Choristoneura fumiferana genes that are induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I). Of the six PCR products identified, one bound to a 2.8-kb mRNA from CF-203 cells whose abundance increased when the cells were grown in the presence of JH I. The same 2.8-kb mRNA decreased to undetectable levels when the CF-203 cells were grown in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The PCR fragment probe also detected a 2.8-kb mRNA in the C. fumiferana larval tissues. This 2.8-kb mRNA was present on the first day of the first, third, fourth, fifth and sixth larval and pupal stadia, but was conspicuously absent on the first day of the second larval stadium, as well as during the intermolt periods of the first to fifth instar larval stages. In the sixth instar larvae the 2.8-kb mRNA was detected in the fat body, epidermis and midgut during the intermolt period. The PCR fragment was used as a probe to screen a cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this 2.8-kb cDNA clone showed similarity with the deduced amino acid sequences of Heliothis virescens juvenile hormone esterases (HvJHE). The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA clone contained all five functional motifs that are present in most of esterases, proteases and lipases. The cDNA clone was expressed in the baculovirus expression system, producing a protein that showed JHE activity.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 03/1999; · 4.04 Impact Factor
Article: Insect cuticular proteins[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insect cuticles are composite structural materials with mechanical properties optimal for their biological functions. The bulk properties of cuticles are to a large extent determined by the interactions between the various components, mainly the chitin filament system and the proteins. The various cuticular types show pronounced differences in mechanical properties, and it is suggested that these differences can be related to the properties of the individual proteins and to the degree of secondary stabilization (sclerotization).The amino acid sequences, which have been obtained for insect cuticular proteins either by direct sequencing of purified proteins or by deduction from corresponding DNA-sequences, are listed according to insect order and species.Extensive sequence similarity is observed among several cuticular proteins obtained from different insect orders. Other cuticular proteins are characterized by repeated occurrence of a few small motifs consisting mainly of hydrophobic residues. The latter group of proteins has so far only been reported from stift cuticles.The possible relevance of the various motifs and repeats for protein interaction and the mechanical properties of cuticles is discussed.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 03/1995; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) is a common feature of insect digestive physiology. PLA(2) hydrolyzes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) associated with the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PLs). We describe here a PLA(2) from midgut contents of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Our results indicate that the enzyme is sensitive to pH (inactivated at low pH), protein concentration (up to 1.6&mgr;g/&mgr;l), substrate concentration (up to 1.4nmoles/reaction), temperature (up to 30 degrees C), and incubation time. We also found that PLA(2) activity is higher in fed than in starved larvae, and enzyme activity is associated with the midgut contents, rather than the midgut epithelium of fed larvae. All known secretory PLA(2)s, except for a PLA(2) in venom of the marine snail, Conus magus, require high calcium concentrations for catalysis, but the Manduca PLA(2) appears to be calcium-independent, and it exhibits increased PLA(2) activity in the presence of a calcium-chelator, EGTA. In addition, the partially purified Manduca PLA(2) is not inhibited by the phospholipid analog, oleyloxyethylphosphorylcholine. These findings suggest that the Manduca digestive PLA(2) may represent another novel form of PLA(2).Journal of insect physiology 03/1998; 44(3-4):297-303. · 2.24 Impact Factor