Article

Prevalence of malaria as co-infection in HIV-infected individuals in a malaria endemic area of southeastern Nigeria.

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Journal of vector borne diseases (Impact Factor: 1.04). 12/2007; 44(4):250-4.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted on the prevalence of malaria as co-infection amongst 'asymptomatic HIV' and 'symptomatic HIV' subjects to see if such prevalence deviated from that commonly reported in apparently health individuals in same locality.
A prospective study that involved 196 participants grouped according to their HIV status as: 'asymptomatic HIV seropositive group' (n = 101); 'symptomatic HIV seropositive group' (n = 48) and 'control HIV-seronegative group (n = 47). Blood samples collected from the participants were used for double HIV screening by rapid immunoassay technique and immunochromatographic technique, and for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using rapid P. falciparum antigen detection method.
The result showed that the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria as a co-infection amongst the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group was 12 (11.8%) and amongst the symptomatic HIV seropositive group was 16 (33.3%). However, the prevalence rate of P. falciparum malaria amongst the control HIV seronegative group was 5 (10.6%) and the combined burden of P. falciparum malaria amongst both groups of HIV seropositives was 28 (18.9%).
The present study observed different prevalence rates of P. falciparum malaria amongst the three groups. The prevalence was tripled in symptomatic HIV seropositive group. This shows a clear departure from possible obtainable prevalence of malaria infection alone in this malaria endemic area. Due to the mortality rates associated with malaria infection in an endemic area, it may be necessary that routine malaria screening be adopted as part of the management policy to check the co-infection.

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