White adipose tissue was believed to be just an energy-storage organ, but it is now recognized to be an active participant in energy homoeostasis and physiological functions such as immunity and inflammation. Macrophages are components of adipose tissue and actively participate in its activities. Adipose tissue is known to express and secrete a variety of products known as 'adipokines', including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The release of adipokines by either adipocytes or adipose tissue-infiltrated macrophages leads to a chronic subinflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity.
"In the last decade, several studies have shown elevated IL- 6, TNF, and IL-1 levels in obese patients     ; however, data regarding the relevance of these cytokines are controversial "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3-36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.
"Ovarian exhaustion during the menopausal transition produces endocrine and metabolic changes that relate to body composition and lifestyle habits, stress, and psychosocial adjustments, all which increase weight and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (METS). The adipose tissue is a complex and highly active endocrine organ engaging with multiple functions mainly nutrient homeostasis , energy storage, body insulation, thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, adipokine secretion and anti-atherogenesis   . Visceral and subcutaneous fat produce a large array of adipokines which display actions on the immune system, endothelium and cardiovascular system, metabolism and inflammation    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To measure serum levels of adipsin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, ghrelin and insulin in postmenopausal women screened for the metabolic syndrome (METS).
Serum of 100 postmenopausal women was analyzed using multiplex technology for the mentioned analytes. In addition, values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Comparisons were performed in accordance to the presence or not of the METS and each of its components. Criteria of the American Heart Association were used to define the METS.
Age and time since menopause onset were similar in women with the METS (n = 57) as compared to those without the syndrome (n = 43). METS women displayed significantly higher levels of adipsin, leptin, resistin, insulin and HOMA-IR values and lower adiponectin levels. These differences were mainly observed among women with abdominal obesity, independent of fulfilling METS criteria or not. In this same sense, lower adiponectin levels significantly related to low HDL-C and high triglyceride levels; and higher insulin and HOMA-IR values related to high triglyceride and glucose levels, respectively.
In this sample, postmenopausal women with the METS displayed higher insulin and adipokine levels. These were mainly related to abdominal obesity and metabolic and lipid abnormalities. More research is warranted in this regard.
"Recently, obesity is recognized to be associated with endocrine abnormalities that are triggered by some secreted proteins, a special class of biologically active molecules, which is released into circulation by several organs especially including adipose tissue and skeletal muscle . Some of these secreted proteins were demonstrated to have associations with insulin resistance and were involved in the progression of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer, so they were considered as biomarkers  . "
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