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Media exposure and dimensions of anxiety sensitivity:
Differential associations with PTSD symptom clusters
Kelsey C. Collimorea, Randi E. McCabeb,*, R. Nicholas Carletona,
Gordon J.G. Asmundsona
aAnxiety and Illness Behaviour Laboratory and Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada
bAnxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences,
McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 4A6
Received 5 June 2007; received in revised form 2 November 2007; accepted 2 November 2007
The present investigation examined the impact of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and media exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) symptoms. Reactions from 143 undergraduate students in Hamilton, Ontario were assessed in the Fall of 2003 to gather
information on anxiety, media coverage, and PTSD symptoms related to exposure to a remote traumatic event (September 11th).
Regression analyses revealedthatthe Anxiety Sensitivity Index(ASI;[Peterson, R. A., &Reiss, S.(1992). Anxiety Sensitivity Index
manual, 2nd ed. Worthington, Ohio: International Diagnostic Systems]) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait form (STAI-T;
[Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). State-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, California: Consulting
Psychologists Press]) total scores were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms in general. The ASI total score was also a
significant predictor of hyperarousal and avoidance symptoms. Subsequent analyses further demonstrated differential relationships
symptoms, whereas the ASI fear of somatic sensations subscale significantly predicted avoidance and overall PTSD symptoms.
Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
# 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Anxiety sensitivity; Media exposure; Trauma; Posttraumatic stress disorder
Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) – the fear of anxiety-related
consequences (Reiss & McNally, 1985) – has been
implicated as an important construct in both the
development and maintenance of anxiety disorders
(Cox, Borger, & Enns, 1999). The AS construct is
sensations, fear of cognitive dyscontrol, and fear of
publicly observable anxiety reactions (Taylor, 1999).
When a person with heightened AS experiences anxiety
he or she may misinterpret these symptoms as signs of a
serious threat (e.g., a pending heart attack), and conse-
quently feel more anxious. Accordingly, AS serves to
amplify the anxiety response in several contexts because
the response itself elicits additional fear (Reiss, 1991).
The implicitly critical role of AS in panic disorder
Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22 (2008) 1021–1028
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 905 522 1155x33695;
fax: +1 905 521 6120.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (R.E. McCabe).
0887-6185/$ – see front matter # 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Author's personal copy
additional research has suggested that levels of AS are
also high among individuals with posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD; Bryant & Panasetis, 2001; Lang,
Kennedy, & Stein, 2002; Taylor, 1999; Taylor, Koch,
& McNally, 1992). For example, in a comparison of AS
across the anxiety disorders, people with PD and PTSD
reported higher AS scores relative to people with other
anxiety disorders (i.e., obsessive–compulsive disorder,
generalized anxiety disorder; Taylor et al., 1992). More-
over, there were no statistically significant differences
between AS scores in individuals with PD and PTSD.
AS is associated with PTSD symptoms (e.g., Asmund-
son, Norton, Allderlings, Norton, & Larsen, 1998;
Bernstein et al., 2005; Fedoroff, Taylor, Asmundson,
Zvolensky, 2006; Keogh, Ayers, & Francis, 2002).
Although seemingly abundant, research exploring the
relationship between AS and anxiety disorders might be
considered limited because investigators have focused
& Reiss, 1992) total scores, and not the specific
dimensions of AS (Deacon & Abramowitz, 2006).
Studies exploring the relationships between the
found that ASI total and subscale scores moderated the
relationship between trauma exposure frequency and
PTSD symptoms. In people reporting higher AS, greater
frequencies of a variety of traumatic experiences were
associated with greater PTSD symptom severity; how-
ever, trauma exposure frequency had little effect on
people reporting lower AS. In particular, the ASI total
score and the fear of cognitive dyscontrol subscale were
a prospective study, mothers’ prenatal AS predicted
postnatal PTSD symptoms (Keogh et al., 2002).
Specifically, the fear of somatic sensations subscale of
the ASI was significantly correlated with all PTSD
symptom clusters except avoidance; the fear of publicly
observable anxiety reactions subscale was significantly
correlated with all PTSD symptom clusters except
hyperarousal; and the fear of cognitive dyscontrol
subscale was not significantly correlated with any PTSD
symptoms. Although previous studies have clearly
demonstrated empirical support for the association
between AS and PTSD symptoms, additional research
is needed to more precisely delineate the relationship.
Knowing whether particular dimensions of AS are
associated with different PTSD symptoms could aid
client needs (Taylor, 2004). For example, if the fear of
somatic sensations subscale of the ASI is found to be
consistently associated with hyperarousal symptoms, it
may be appropriate to incorporate techniques that
specifically target somatic sensations (e.g., interoceptive
exposure techniques), when treating PTSD patients
who experience clinically significant symptoms of
A number of studies also report that media coverage
of traumatic events (i.e., vicarious exposure) is
associated with PTSD symptomatology. Following
events of September 11th, several studies identified a
link between television exposure and PTSD symptoms.
In three national samples, hours spent watching
television coverage of September 11th was positively
correlated with substantial symptoms of posttraumatic
stress (Schlenger et al., 2002; Schuster et al., 2001;
Silver, Holman, McIntosh, Poulin, & Gil-Rivas, 2002).
Additional findings demonstrated that people who were
exposed to greater television coverage in the week
following the attacks, particularly more dramatic
coverage (i.e., images of people jumping or falling
from World Trade Center buildings), were more likely
tomeetdiagnosticcriteriaforPTSD (Ahernetal., 2002;
Ahern, Galea, Resnick, & Vlahov, 2004; Bernstein
et al., 2007). Symptomatic responses were further
exacerbated for viewers with pre-existing psychiatric
disorders (Franklin, Young, & Zimmerman, 2002),
particularly for patients with PTSD and PD (Kinzie,
Lachenmyeyer, Bastiani, Wainman, & Uccello, 2002;
Asmundson, Carleton, Wright, & Taylor, 2004).
The present study was designed to further assess (1)
roles of AS and media exposure in predicting PTSD
symptoms, and (2) the extent to which the various
dimensions of AS contribute to each of the PTSD
symptom clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance and
numbing, hyperarousal). To explore these issues, the
relationships between AS, PTSD symptoms, and media
exposure (i.e., television coverage of the events on
September 11th), were examined. The different
dimensions of AS, as well as media exposure, were
expected to relate differentially to the various symptom
clusters of PTSD. A positive correlation was expected
between levels of AS and greater media exposure and
self-reported PTSD symptoms.
men, ages 17–22, M = 18.8; S.D. = 1.2, and 118
K.C. Collimore et al./Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22 (2008) 1021–10281022
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women, ages 17–37, M = 18.9; S.D. = 2.0) from the
Department of Psychology at McMaster University in
Hamilton, Ontario (see Table 1). All participants
completed a paper-and-pencil administered question-
naire battery approved by the McMaster University
Research Ethics Board. Participants were recruited
through poster advertisement. The majority of partici-
pants (99.3%) had completed at least some university
courses. Participation was voluntary and all participants
gave their informed consent. All participants received
course credit for participation and were debriefed
following completion of the study. The questionnaires
were completed 2.2–2.3 years after the events of
Participants were asked to estimate how many
minutes or hours they spent watching television news
about the attacks in theweekfollowing September 11th.
Although these data were collected approximately two
years following the events, respondents had the option
of indicating whether they could not recall this
information. Furthermore, the perceived recollections
of time spent exposed should approximate the salience
of exposure for each individual.
Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Peterson & Reiss,
1992). The ASI measures a person’s tendency to fear
sensations of anxiety based on the belief that these may
have harmful consequences. Using a 5-point Likert
scale ranging from 0 (very little) to 4 (very much),
participants rated 16 items associated with anxiety or
arousal. Factor analytic investigations suggest that the
ASI is comprised of three lower-level factors (i.e., fear
of somatic sensations, fear of cognitive dyscontrol, and
fear of socially observable anxiety symptoms), which
load onto a single higher-order factor (Taylor, Koch,
Woody, & McLean, 1996; Zinbarg, Barlow, & Brown,
1997). The validity and reliability of the ASI have been
well documented (see Taylor, 1999). The ASI demon-
strates high internal consistency for the total scale in
college student samples (a = .82–.88) and adequate
test–retest reliability (r = .71–.75; Antony, Orsillo, &
Roemer, 2001; Reiss, Silverman, & Weems, 2001;
Taylor, 1999). High correlations between the lower-
level factors and the presence of the overarching AS
factor suggest good internal reliability for the scale
(Zinbarg et al., 1997). The total-scale internal con-
sistency for this sample was high (a = .81).
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Trait (STAI-T;
Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970). The trait
form of the STAI is a widely used measure of anxiety
proneness. Trait anxiety is generally considered
empirically and conceptually distinct from AS, which
denotes the fear of one’s own anxiety sensations
(Lilienfeld, 1996). Participants rated 20 items using a 4-
point Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 4
(almost always). Psychometric properties of the STAI
are well documented (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lush-
ene, 1983). The STAI has demonstrated high internal
consistency(a = .90),good
(r = .70–.76), and concurrent validity with other anxiety
measures. Internal consistency for this sample was high
(a = .89).
Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R; Weiss &
Marmar, 1997). The IES-R, based on the original
Impact of Events Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, &
Alvarez, 1979), is designed to assess current posttrau-
matic stress symptoms following a stressful life event.
In this study participants were asked to complete the
questionnaire based on their experiences for the week
following September 11th. Participants rated 22 items
4 (extremely). The IES-R is comprised of three
subscales to estimate symptoms of re-experiencing,
avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal. The IES-R
demonstrates high levels of internal consistency for
the total scale (a = .96) and for the three subscales
(a = .87–.94for re-experiencing,
avoidance/numbing, and a = .79–.91 for hyperarousal;
Creamer, Bell, & Failla, 2003; Weiss & Marmar, 1997)
and good to excellent test–retest reliability (r = .57–.94
for re-experiencing, r = .51–.89 for avoidance/numb-
ing, and r = .59–.92 for hyperarousal; Weiss & Marmar,
1997). The IES-R is highly correlated with other
a = .84–.87for
K.C. Collimore et al./Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22 (2008) 1021–10281023
Demographic composition of the sample
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measures of PTSD symptoms, such as the PTSD
Checklist – Civilian Version (r = .84; Creamer et al.,
2003; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993).
The internal consistency for this sample was high
(a = .90).
Although one might question the validity of
retrospective recall of PTSD symptoms, the accuracy
of memory for acute trauma symptoms (i.e., acute
stress disorder symptoms) has been examined in
motor vehicle accident victims (Harvey & Bryant,
2000). Acute stress disorder is an anxiety disorder
that is characterized by PTSD-like features but occurs
within 1 month of the stressor (American Psychiatric
Association, 2000). In this study (Harvey & Bryant,
2000), victims who had rated their symptoms within 1
month posttrauma were asked to recall and rate
these acute symptoms again at 2 years posttrauma.
The majority of patients correctly recalled most of
the symptom clusters that they reported 1-month
following the trauma. Recall of re-experiencing,
avoidance, and dissociative symptoms were good
(approximately 77%, 77%, and 82% of participants
correctly recalled their symptoms, respectively);
however the recall of hyperarousal symptoms was
fair (55% correctly recalled their symptoms cor-
rectly). Additionally, studies that assess psycho-
pathology using structured clinical interviews (e.g.,
the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; First,
Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1996) assess for past
psychiatric disorders, including a history of PTSD.
Accordingly, given the nature of the events of
September 11th and typical assessment of past
psychiatric disorders in gold standard assessment
methods, we felt that the use of retrospective recall of
symptoms was appropriate.
The analyses proceeded as follows. First, a
correlation analysis was performed using the total
scale and subscale scores from the ASI and IES-R, the
total score from the STAI-T, and the number of
minutes of media exposure. The correlation results
provided an indication of the direction for the
subsequent regression analyses. Second, a series of
regression analyses were then performed with the IES-
R total score and each of the IES-R subscale scores as
the dependent variables. This allowed for an evalua-
tion of the unique contributions to PTSD symptoms
and each PTSD symptom cluster, from each of the ASI
and trait anxiety total scores, the ASI subscales, and
Means and standard deviations are presented in
Table 2. The results of the correlation analyses showed
statistically significant correlations throughout the data
(Table 3). Additional correlation analyses showed that
sex was not significantly correlated with any of the
study variables (all ps > .05). Consideration was given
to restricting the Type I error rate beyond p < .05;
however,giventhat the intent ofthe investigationwas to
explore significant associations and provide directions
for future research, we chose not to risk inflating a Type
The initial regression analyses assessed PTSD
symptom variance accounted for by the ASI total
score, trait anxiety, and media exposure. First, the IES-
the ASI total, STAI-T, and media exposure entered as
the independent variables, Adjusted R2= .21, F(3,
113) = 11.01, p < .01. The ASI total score (r = .28;
p < .01) and the STAI-T (r = .21; p < .05) were both
significantly associated with overall PTSD symptoms.
Media exposure, however, was not significantly
associated with overall PTSD symptoms (r = .11;
p > .05). Second, the IES-R re-experiencing subscale
was entered as the dependent variable, with the ASI
total score, the STAI-T, and media exposure entered as
the independent variables, Adjusted R2= .16, F(3,
113) = 8.44, p < .01. The STAI-T (r = .24; p < .01) and
media exposure (r = .22; p < .05) were significantly
associated with re-experiencing symptoms. The ASI
total score, however, was not significantly associated
with re-experiencing symptoms (r = .12; p > .05).
Third, the IES-R avoidance/numbing subscale was
K.C. Collimore et al./Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22 (2008) 1021–10281024
Descriptives and statistics
IES-R, Impact of Events Scale Revised; ASI, Anxiety Sensitivity
Index; ASI somatic, fear of somatic sensations subscale; ASI cogni-
tive, fear of cognitive dyscontrol subscale; ASI social, fear of publicly
observable anxiety reactions; STAI-T, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory –
Author's personal copy
entered as the dependent variable, with the ASI total
score, the STAI-T, and media exposure entered as the
113) = 8.28, p < .01. The ASI total score was sig-
nificantly associated with avoidance/numbing symp-
toms (r = .34, p < .001); however, the STAI-T (r = .08,
p > .05) and media exposure (r = .09, p > .05) were not
significantly associated with avoidance/numbing symp-
toms. Fourth, the IES-R hyperarousal subscale was
STAI-T, and media exposure entered as the independent
variables, Adjusted R2= .18, F(3, 113) = 9.70, p < .01.
The ASI total score (r = .22, p < .01), the STAI-T
(r = .21; p < .05), and media exposure (r = .18;
p < .05) were all significantly associated with hyper-
Subsequent regression analyses assessed PTSD
symptom variance accounted for by the each of the
ASI subscales, trait anxiety, and media exposure. First,
the IES-R total score was entered as the dependent
variable, with the three ASI subscales, the STAI-T, and
media exposure entered as the independent variables,
Adjusted R2= .20, F(5, 111) = 6.68, p < .01. The ASI
fear of somatic sensations subscale (r = .23, p < .01)
and the STAI-T (r = .22, p < .05) were significantly
associated with IES-R total scores; however, neither of
the other ASI subscales nor media exposure were
simultaneously significant. Second, the IES-R re-
experiencing subscale was entered as the dependent
variable, with the ASI subscales, the STAI-T, and media
R2= .15, F(5, 111) = 5.14, p < .01. The STAI-T
(r = .25;p < .01) and media
p < .05) were significantly associated with re-experi-
encing symptoms; however, none of the ASI subscales
exposure(r = .21;
were simultaneously significantly associated with re-
experiencing symptoms. Third, the IES-R avoidance/
numbing subscale was entered as the dependent
variable, with the ASI subscales, the STAI-T, and
media exposure entered as the independent variables,
Adjusted R2= .16, F(5, 111) = 5.28, p < .01. In this
model, the ASI fear of somatic sensations subscale was
significantly (r = .29; p < .01) associated with avoid-
ance/numbing symptoms; however, none of the
remaining variables (i.e., the other ASI subscales, the
STAI-T, or media exposure) were simultaneously
significant. Fourth, the IES-R hyperarousal subscale
was entered as the dependent variable, with the ASI
subscales, the STAI-T, and media exposure entered as
the independent variables, Adjusted R2= .17, F(5,
111) = 5.77, p < .01. The STAI-T (r = .22; p < .05) and
media exposure (r = .18; p < .05) were significantly
associated with hyperarousal symptoms; however, none
of the ASI subscales were simultaneously significantly
associated with hyperarousal symptoms.
Both AS and media exposure have been implicated
as contributing to PTSD symptomatology; never-
theless, few studies have examined the associations
of the AS dimensions and media exposure with PTSD
symptoms. The present study investigated the inter-
relationships between AS, trait anxiety, PTSD symp-
toms, and media exposure. The predictive roles of AS
and media exposure (i.e., television coverage) for
PTSD symptoms were also assessed. Thereafter, we
explored the extent to which each of the ASI subscales
and media exposure contributed to each of the PTSD
K.C. Collimore et al./Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22 (2008) 1021–1028 1025
ASI, Anxiety Sensitivity Index; ASI somatic, fear of somatic sensations subscale; ASI cognitive, fear of cognitive dyscontrol subscale; ASI social,
fear of publicly observable anxiety reactions; IES-R, Impact of Events Scale Revised; STAI-T, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – trait form.
*Correlations are significant (p < .05).
**Correlations are significant (p < .01).
Author's personal copy
Correlations between the ASI total scale and
subscale scores, and the IES-R total scale and subscale
scores, were statistically significant, but moderate to
low. Similarly, correlations between the STAI-T score
and the IES-R total scale and subscale scores were
statistically significant, but moderate to low. Media
exposurewas significantly correlatedwith the IES-R re-
experiencing and hyperarousal subscales, but was not
significantly correlated with the IES-R total scale score
or the IES-R avoidance/numbing subscale score.
The initial regression analyses suggested that ASI
and STAI-T total scores have important relationships
previous findings of significant associations between
the general AS construct and PTSD (e.g., Asmundson
et al., 1998; Fedoroff et al., 2000; Keogh et al., 2002) as
well as trait anxiety and PTSD (e.g., Weems et al.,
2007). In addition, the ASI total score was significantly
associated with avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal
symptoms, but not with re-experiencing symptoms.
Several previous studies (Hayward, Killen, & Taylor,
2003; Norton & Asmundson, 2004; Simon et al., 2006)
have likewise found that the ASI is related to behavioral
avoidance; however, the current results contrast several
early studies that failed to find a significant relationship
between the ASI and avoidance symptoms (see Craske
& Barlow, 1988 for a review).
Subsequent regression analyses examined the PTSD
symptom variance accounted for by each of the AS
dimensions, trait anxiety, and media exposure. The ASI
fear of somatic sensations subscale was significantly
associated with avoidance/numbing symptoms, but not
with hyperarousal or re-experiencing symptoms. The
remaining ASI subscales (i.e., fear of cognitive
dyscontrol and fear of publicly observable anxiety
reactions) were not significantly associated with any of
the PTSD symptom clusters. A significant relationship
agoraphobic avoidance has been previously implicated
in a non-clinical sample (e.g., Wilson & Hayward,
2006). Conversely, Keogh et al. (2002) found that the
ASI fear of somatic sensations subscale was signifi-
cantly correlated withall of the PTSD symptom clusters
except for avoidance/numbing. The same study also
provided evidence that the fear of publicly observable
anxiety reactions subscale was a significant predictor of
PTSD symptoms, which is contrary to the findings of
the current study. Such mixed findings may be due to
differences in measures, the samples used, and the type
of trauma experienced. For example, participants in the
Keogh et al. study included women between the ages of
18–42 who were assessed for PTSD symptoms
following childbirth, whereas the current study exam-
ined PTSD symptoms following the terrorist attacks of
September 11th in an undergraduate sample. Future
research should aim to clarify the relationship between
the AS dimensions and the PTSD symptom clusters
across a variety of trauma contexts and using different
Media exposure and trait anxiety also had significant
relationships with re-experiencing and hyperarousal
symptoms, but not with avoidance/numbing symptoms.
These results are consistent with previous findings
demonstrating that exposure to high levels of media
coverage increased the likelihood of stress symptoms
following trauma (e.g., Bernstein et al., 2007; Schuster
et al., 2001; Schlenger et al., 2002). It may be that
repeated exposure to images serves as a reminder of the
Thereafter, hyperarousal and re-experiencing symp-
toms may serve to drive avoidance behaviors (Feuer,
Nishith, & Resick, 2005).
The current study has some limitations that warrant
consideration when interpreting the findings and which
provide avenues for future research. First, results were
retrospective, and consequently our findings are
correlational in nature. Although recall of acute stress
symptoms has been shown to be generally adequate for
investigations like this one (e.g., Harvey & Bryant,
studies (e.g., Brennan, Stewart, Jamhour, Businelle, &
Gouvier, 2007; Safer, Bonanno, & Field, 2001) and a
large-scale review (Hardt & Rutter, 2004) suggest that
retrospective recall of distress for highly salient
stressors may be reasonably accurate. We felt that
given the salient and pervasive impact of the events of
September 11th, retrospective recall of symptoms and
television coverage were appropriate; however, all of
these aforementioned studies underscore that the
retrospective recall bias is sufficient to warrant caution
when interpreting and extrapolating associated results.
Future research should focus on assessing the effects of
AS and media exposure on PTSD symptoms in
prospective studies, where possible. Second, the sample
was comprised primarily of undergraduate women,
limiting the generalizability of the findings. Third, this
study relied on a self-report measure of PTSD (i.e., the
IES-R); despite the acceptable psychometric properties
of the measure, its use prohibited a clinical diagnosis.
Future studies should aim to examine the roles of AS
and media exposure on PTSD symptoms using
established diagnostic interview schedules and, per-
haps, in clinical samples (e.g., patients with existing
anxiety or mood disorders). Fourth, participants were
K.C. Collimore et al./Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22 (2008) 1021–10281026
Author's personal copy
not assessed for a history of psychiatric diagnoses or for
personal associations with the events of September 11th
(e.g., loved ones who were harmed as a direct result of
the events). As noted, individuals with a history of a
mental disorder or those knowing someone who was
directly affected by the terrorist attacks may have been
more susceptible to stress reactions (Franklin et al.,
2002). Fifth, although the ASI is the most widely used
measure of AS, there is disagreement about the validity
and reliability of the subscales (see Taylor, 1999).
Future research should aim to use more psychome-
trically sound, multidimensional measures of AS, such
as the Anxiety Sensitivity Index – 3 (Taylor et al., 2007)
which was developed to more comprehensively
measure the lower-order dimensions of AS.
positive, inter-correlated, but differential association
between the dimensions of AS, PTSD symptoms, and
media exposure. Specifically, the fear of somatic
sensations subscale of the ASI appears related to
symptoms of behavioral avoidance, while media
exposure appears to be associated with symptoms of
re-experiencing and hyperarousal. These findings may
have clinical implications for planning treatment for
PTSD. Among individuals with PTSD, targeting AS –
specifically the fear of somatic sensations – with
interoceptive exposure may be particularly effective in
reducing avoidance behavior (e.g., avoiding thoughts,
feelings, or places associated with the trauma). Pre-
liminary findings suggest that this treatment approach is
effective (e.g., Wald & Taylor, 2005, 2007). In addition,
act as a reminder of the event and contribute to PTSD
symptoms, preventative measures may be necessary to
reduce media exposure, particularly for vulnerable
populations, following large-scale traumatic events.
This paper is based, in part, on the B.H.Sc. Honours
thesis of the first author conducted under the super-
vision of the second author. K. C. Collimore is
supported by a Canadian Institute of Health Research
(CIHR) Doctoral Research Award. R.N. Carleton is
supported by a CIHR Canada Graduate Scholarship
Doctoral Research Award. Dr. Asmundson is supported
by a CIHR Investigator’s Award.
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