Article

Media exposure and dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Differential associations with PTSD symptom clusters

Anxiety and Illness Behaviour Laboratory and Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.
Journal of Anxiety Disorders (Impact Factor: 2.96). 08/2008; 22(6):1021-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.11.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present investigation examined the impact of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and media exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Reactions from 143 undergraduate students in Hamilton, Ontario were assessed in the Fall of 2003 to gather information on anxiety, media coverage, and PTSD symptoms related to exposure to a remote traumatic event (September 11th). Regression analyses revealed that the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; [Peterson, R. A., & Reiss, S. (1992). Anxiety Sensitivity Index manual, 2nd ed. Worthington, Ohio: International Diagnostic Systems]) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait form (STAI-T; [Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). State-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press]) total scores were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms in general. The ASI total score was also a significant predictor of hyperarousal and avoidance symptoms. Subsequent analyses further demonstrated differential relationships based on subscales and symptom clusters. Specifically, media exposure and trait anxiety predicted hyperarousal and re-experiencing symptoms, whereas the ASI fear of somatic sensations subscale significantly predicted avoidance and overall PTSD symptoms. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: R. Nicholas Carleton, Jun 28, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
182 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders (SUDs) and anxiety disorders commonly co-occur, yet to date no empirically-supported treatments for this combination of disorders has been developed. One potential way of treating these issues simultaneously may be to target anxiety sensitivity (AS), which is a risk factor for development of both SUDs and problematic anxiety. The objectives of the current study were to develop and pilot test a brief treatment aimed at reducing AS and substance use. Twenty-one individuals concurrently participating in a community-based intensive outpatient SUD treatment program received six 1.5-h sessions of an AS-targeted intervention, primarily utilizing interoceptive exposures, cognitive challenging, and psychoeducation about the relationship between substance use and anxiety. At post-treatment, participants had significant reductions in AS as measured by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (d = 1.62; ASI; Reiss et al. in Behav Res Ther 24(1):1–8, 1986), and significant decreases in percent days abstinent from substances (Cohen’s d = 1.35). Average scores on the ASI at pre-treatment were in the clinical range (M = 41.5, SD = 9.97) but had moved to the nonclinical range on the ASI at 3 months follow-up (M = 20.8, SD = 9.39; intent to treat analysis). Participants had large reductions in the Depression–Anxiety–Stress Scale (Lovibond and Lovibond in Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Psychology Foundation Monograph, Sydney, 1995) anxiety subscale scores but remained in the moderate range on this subscale at follow-up. Subjective reports of both participants and therapists described the intervention as tolerable, effective, and desired. Results of the current open trial suggest that a relatively brief (
    Cognitive Therapy and Research 01/2015; 39(3). DOI:10.1007/s10608-014-9666-0 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cross-lagged panel analysis of interview data collected from survivors of traumatic physical injury (N = 677) was used to examine the temporal relationship between anxiety sensitivity and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. The 2 constructs were assessed at 3 time points: within days of physical injury, at 6-month follow-up, and at 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity and PTSD symptom severity were reciprocally related such that anxiety sensitivity predicted subsequent PTSD symptom severity, and symptom severity predicted later anxiety sensitivity. Findings have both theoretical and clinical implications.
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 02/2010; 119(1):143-50. DOI:10.1037/a0018009 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Behavioral economic studies reveal that negative sentiment driven by bad mood and anxiety affects investment decisions and may hence affect asset pricing. In this study we examine the effect of aviation disasters on stock prices. We find evidence of a significant negative event effect with an average market loss of more than $60 billion per aviation disaster, whereas the estimated actual loss is no more than $1 billion. In two days a price reversal occurs. We find the effect to be greater in small and riskier stocks and in firms belonging to less stable industries. This event effect is also accompanied by an increase in the perceived risk: implied volatility increases after aviation disasters without an increase in actual volatility.
    Journal of Financial Economics 07/2008; DOI:10.1016/j.jfineco.2009.10.002 · 3.72 Impact Factor