Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error.
ABSTRACT The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors attachment to microtubules and tension on chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. It represents a surveillance mechanism that halts cells in M-phase in the presence of unattached chromosomes, associated with accumulation of checkpoint components, in particular, Mad2, at the kinetochores. A complex between the anaphase promoting factor/cylosome (APC/C), its accessory protein Cdc20 and proteins of the SAC renders APC/C inactive, usually until all chromosomes are properly assembled at the spindle equator (chromosome congression) and under tension from spindle fibres. Upon release from the SAC the APC/C can target proteins like cyclin B and securin for degradation by the proteasome. Securin degradation causes activation of separase proteolytic enzyme, and in mitosis cleavage of cohesin proteins at the centromeres and arms of sister chromatids. In meiosis I only the cohesin proteins at the sister chromatid arms are cleaved. This requires meiosis specific components and tight regulation by kinase and phosphatase activities. There is no S-phase between meiotic divisions. Second meiosis resembles mitosis. Mammalian oocytes arrest constitutively at metaphase II in presence of aligned chromosomes, which is due to the activity of the cytostatic factor (CSF). The SAC has been identified in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, but gender-differences may contribute to sex-specific differential responses to aneugens. The age-related reduction in expression of components of the SAC in mammalian oocytes may act synergistically with spindle and other cell organelles' dysfunction, and a partial loss of cohesion between sister chromatids to predispose oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation. This might affect dose-response to aneugens. In view of the tendency to have children at advanced maternal ages it appears relevant to pursue studies on consequences of ageing on the susceptibility of human oocytes to the induction of meiotic error by aneugens and establish models to assess risks to human health by environmental exposures.
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ABSTRACT: Many different chromosomal races with reduced chromosome number due to the presence of Robertsonian fusion metacentrics have been described in western Europe and northern Africa, within the distribution area of the western house mouse Mus musculus domesticus. This subspecies of house mouse has become the ideal model for studies to elucidate the processes of chromosome mutation and fixation that lead to the formation of chromosomal races and for studies on the impact of chromosome heterozygosities on reproductive isolation and speciation. In this review, we briefly describe the history of the discovery of the first and subsequent metacentric races in house mice; then, we focus on the molecular composition of the centromeric regions involved in chromosome fusion to examine the molecular characteristics that may explain the great variability of the karyotype that house mice show. The influence that metacentrics exert on the nuclear architecture of the male meiocytes and the consequences on meiotic progression are described to illustrate the impact that chromosomal heterozygosities exert on fertility of house mice-of relevance to reproductive isolation and speciation. The evolutionary significance of the Robertsonian phenomenon in the house mouse is discussed in the final section of this review.Chromosoma 07/2014; 123(6). DOI:10.1007/s00412-014-0477-6 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Meiosis produces haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Triphenyltin chloride (TPTCL) is a highly bioaccumulated and toxic environmental oestrogen; however, its effect on oocyte meiosis remains unknown. We examined the effect of TPTCL on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, TPTCL inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and first polar body extrusion (PBE) in a dose-dependent manner. The spindle microtubules completely disassembled and the chromosomes condensed after oocytes were exposed to 5 or 10gmL(-1) TPTCL. -Tubulin protein was abnormally localised near chromosomes rather than on the spindle poles. In vivo, mice received TPTCL by oral gavage for 10 days. The general condition of the mice deteriorated and the ovary coefficient was reduced (P<0.05). The number of secondary and mature ovarian follicles was significantly reduced by 10mgkg(-1) TPTCL (P<0.05). GVBD decreased in a non-significant, dose-dependent manner (P>0.05). PBE was inhibited with 10mgkg(-1) TPTCL (P<0.05). The spindles of in vitro and in vivo metaphase II oocytes were disassembled with 10mgkg(-1) TPTCL. These results suggest that TPTCL seriously affects meiotic maturation by disturbing cell-cycle progression, disturbing the microtubule cytoskeleton and inhibiting follicle development in mouse oocytes.Reproduction Fertility and Development 08/2013; 26(8). DOI:10.1071/RD12332 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study determined whether morphokinetic variables between aneuploid and euploid embryos differ as a potential aid to select euploid embryos for transfer. Following insemination, EmbryoScope time-lapse images from 98 blastocysts were collected and analysed blinded to ploidy. The morphokinetic variables were retrospectively compared with ploidy, which was determined following trophectoderm biopsy and analysis by array comparative genomic hybridization or single-nucleotide polymorphic array. Multiple aneuploid embryos were delayed at the initiation of compaction (tSC; median 85.1 hours post insemination (hpi); P = 0.02) and the time to reach full blastocyst stage (tB; median 110.9 hpi, P = 0.01) compared with euploid embryos (tSC median 79.7 hpi, tB median 105.9 hpi). Embryos having single or multiple aneuploidy (median 103.4 hpi, P = 0.004 and 101.9 hpi, P = 0.006, respectively) had delayed initiation of blastulation compared with euploid embryos (median 95.1 hpi). No significant differences were observed in first or second cell-cycle length, synchrony of the second or third cell cycles, duration of blastulation, multinucleation at the 2-cell stage and irregular division patterns between euploid and aneuploid embryos. This non-invasive model for ploidy classification may be used to avoid selecting embryos with high risk of aneuploidy while selecting those with reduced risk.Reproductive biomedicine online 02/2013; 26(5). DOI:10.1016/j.rbmo.2013.02.006 · 2.98 Impact Factor