Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error.
ABSTRACT The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors attachment to microtubules and tension on chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. It represents a surveillance mechanism that halts cells in M-phase in the presence of unattached chromosomes, associated with accumulation of checkpoint components, in particular, Mad2, at the kinetochores. A complex between the anaphase promoting factor/cylosome (APC/C), its accessory protein Cdc20 and proteins of the SAC renders APC/C inactive, usually until all chromosomes are properly assembled at the spindle equator (chromosome congression) and under tension from spindle fibres. Upon release from the SAC the APC/C can target proteins like cyclin B and securin for degradation by the proteasome. Securin degradation causes activation of separase proteolytic enzyme, and in mitosis cleavage of cohesin proteins at the centromeres and arms of sister chromatids. In meiosis I only the cohesin proteins at the sister chromatid arms are cleaved. This requires meiosis specific components and tight regulation by kinase and phosphatase activities. There is no S-phase between meiotic divisions. Second meiosis resembles mitosis. Mammalian oocytes arrest constitutively at metaphase II in presence of aligned chromosomes, which is due to the activity of the cytostatic factor (CSF). The SAC has been identified in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, but gender-differences may contribute to sex-specific differential responses to aneugens. The age-related reduction in expression of components of the SAC in mammalian oocytes may act synergistically with spindle and other cell organelles' dysfunction, and a partial loss of cohesion between sister chromatids to predispose oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation. This might affect dose-response to aneugens. In view of the tendency to have children at advanced maternal ages it appears relevant to pursue studies on consequences of ageing on the susceptibility of human oocytes to the induction of meiotic error by aneugens and establish models to assess risks to human health by environmental exposures.
SourceAvailable from: Stefka Delimitreva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the efforts to improve the conditions of gamete and embryo culture, the success rate of assisted reproductive techniques in humans is limited. This suggests that the reduced embryo potential could not be a result only of suboptimal in vitro conditions, but real features of oogenesis and early embryogenesis are involved. Low developmental potential of embryos is related to high rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The chromosomal segregation errors are based on disturbance of interactions between chromatin, cytoskeleton and other factors involved in the last stages of mammalian oocyte meiosis.
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ABSTRACT: The cellular functions of the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 remain unknown. In this research, we studied the expression, localization and functions of TGN38 in the meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. TGN38 was expressed at every stage of oocyte meiotic maturation and colocalized with γ-tubulin at metaphase I and metaphase II. The spindle microtubule disturbing agents nocodazole and taxol did not affect the colocalization of TGN38 and γ-tubulin. Depletion of TGN38 with specific siRNAs resulted in increased metaphase I arrest, accompanied with spindle assembly checkpoint activation and decreased first polar extrusion (PB1). In the oocytes that had extruded the PB1 after the depletion of TGN38, symmetric division occurred, leading to the production of 2 similarly sized cells. Moreover, the peripheral migration of metaphase I spindle and actin cap formation were impaired in TGN38-depleted oocytes. Our data suggest that TGN38 may regulate the metaphase I/anaphase I transition and asymmetric cell division in mouse oocytes.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2014; 13(17):2723-2732. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2015.945828 · 5.24 Impact Factor