Article

Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 1995 University Avenue, Suite 450, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA.
Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy (Impact Factor: 1.16). 02/2007; 2:36. DOI: 10.1186/1747-597X-2-36
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol.
The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983-85 and 1993-95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic), job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory), time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time.
Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55). Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups.
Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

1 Follower
 · 
104 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Burnout is a mental condition de-fined as a result of continuous and long-term stress exposure, particularly related to psycho-social factors at work. This paper aims to ex-amine the psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Questionnaire (MBI-HSS) for validation of use in Lebanon, and to describe burnout and associated factors amongst nurses in Lebanon especially the gender and employ-ment sector. Methods: The psychometric prop-erties of the Arabic version of MBI-HSS were studied amongst a sample of 200 nurses. In this descriptive study, survey data were collected from private and public hospitals. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. Results: The results indi-cated satisfactory reliability through internal consistency for all three scales of the MBI-HSS. The factor analysis was quite satisfactory. Most of staff had scores which indicated they were burnt out. Nearly three quarters (77.5%) reported emotional exhaustion, 36.0% reported deper-sonalization while almost one third (33.0%) ex-perienced reduced personal accomplishment. Burnout increases for 30 -39 years age groups. Married nurses had significantly higher emo-tional exhaustion. Depersonalization was high-est among nurses in private sector, and per-sonal accomplishment was highest among nurses in public sector. Depersonalization prov-ed to be higher in night and rotating shift nurses. Depression, backache, and headache were pre-dictors of burnout. Conclusion: Findings indi-cate that the main psychometric properties of reliability and validity of the Arabic version of MBI-HSS appear to be satisfactory. Burnout is particularly prominent and severe in the nurses working population. The implications of these findings for interventions that reduce burnout and promote nursing mental health are therefore in the interest of employers, governments and policy makers.
    Health 09/2012; 4(09-9):644-65249101. DOI:10.4236/health.2012.49101 · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study was conducted to measure job stress and to explore risk factors of female workers in the retail and sales industries in Seoul, Gyeonggi and Incheon. Methods: A total of 321 participants responded to a self-administered questionnaire that included 24 items of the KOSS(Korean Occupational Stress Scale) and sociodemographic characteristics. The 240 questionnaires were collected from January to March 2007 and analyzed. Results: The mean scores of female workers' job stress in the retail and sales industries ranged in Q50~74 compared with the average scores of female Koreans. The level of job insecurity was significantly high, and ranged in Q75~. However, the level of insufficient job control ranged in Q~24. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain the risk factors of female workers: monthly salary and insufficient sleep were of statistical significance. Conclusion: High level of job stress suggested that appropriate stress management programs be implemented for female workers in the retail and sales industries.
    01/2009; 18(1).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine demographic and substance use factors associated with exclusive smokeless tobacco use (SLT) and dual use of both cigarettes and SLT among blue-collar workers. This cross-sectional study used data from the United States 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The sample (n = 5,392) was restricted to respondents who were classified as blue collar workers by self-report primary job title. Various demographic variables, tobacco use and other substance use variables were examined. Respondents in this blue collar sample were 87% male and 64% Non-Hispanic White. An estimated 9.5% (SE = 0.6) of respondents were current SLT users; 5.3% (SE = 0.4) were current exclusive SLT users, and 4.2% (SE = 0.4) were current dual users of both SLT and cigarettes. Factors related to exclusive SLT use were gender, marital status, age, race/ethnicity, type of blue-collar occupation, current binge drinking, and current marijuana use. Significant factors related to dual use were gender, marital status, age, race/ethnicity, type of blue-collar occupation, current cigar smoking, current binge drinking, and current illicit drug use. Rates of SLT use and dual use are high among U.S. blue-collar workers, indicating a need for targeted, workplace cessation interventions. These interventions may also serve as a gateway for addressing other substance use behaviors in this population.
    Public Health Nursing 11/2013; 31(1). DOI:10.1111/phn.12095 · 0.89 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from