Article

Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 1995 University Avenue, Suite 450, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA.
Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy (Impact Factor: 1.16). 02/2007; 2:36. DOI: 10.1186/1747-597X-2-36
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol.
The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983-85 and 1993-95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic), job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory), time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time.
Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55). Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups.
Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

1 Follower
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Burnout is a mental condition de-fined as a result of continuous and long-term stress exposure, particularly related to psycho-social factors at work. This paper aims to ex-amine the psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Questionnaire (MBI-HSS) for validation of use in Lebanon, and to describe burnout and associated factors amongst nurses in Lebanon especially the gender and employ-ment sector. Methods: The psychometric prop-erties of the Arabic version of MBI-HSS were studied amongst a sample of 200 nurses. In this descriptive study, survey data were collected from private and public hospitals. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. Results: The results indi-cated satisfactory reliability through internal consistency for all three scales of the MBI-HSS. The factor analysis was quite satisfactory. Most of staff had scores which indicated they were burnt out. Nearly three quarters (77.5%) reported emotional exhaustion, 36.0% reported deper-sonalization while almost one third (33.0%) ex-perienced reduced personal accomplishment. Burnout increases for 30 -39 years age groups. Married nurses had significantly higher emo-tional exhaustion. Depersonalization was high-est among nurses in private sector, and per-sonal accomplishment was highest among nurses in public sector. Depersonalization prov-ed to be higher in night and rotating shift nurses. Depression, backache, and headache were pre-dictors of burnout. Conclusion: Findings indi-cate that the main psychometric properties of reliability and validity of the Arabic version of MBI-HSS appear to be satisfactory. Burnout is particularly prominent and severe in the nurses working population. The implications of these findings for interventions that reduce burnout and promote nursing mental health are therefore in the interest of employers, governments and policy makers.
    Health 09/2012; 4(09-9):644-65249101. DOI:10.4236/health.2012.49101 · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Smoking among the Asian American workforce has not been extensively researched. This study examines smoking prevalence among a nationally representative sample of Asian Americans with an emphasis on occupational classification.Methods Cross-sectional data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine smoking prevalence by occupation, gender, and nativity, among 1,528 participants self-identifying as in the labor force.ResultsBlue collar workers reported the highest smoking prevalence (32%) followed by unemployed (19%), other (17%), service (14%), and white collar (10%). Among both employed males and females, blue collar workers had the highest prevalence (45% and 18%, respectively). By nativity, smoking was highest among blue collar workers for immigrants (25%) and highest among the unemployed for U.S. born (16%). Blue collar employment was significantly associated with being a current smoker (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.23–5.16; P < 0.05) controlling for demographics (e.g., age, gender, ethnic group, nativity, etc.).Conclusions Findings reveal that smoking differs by occupation among Asian Americans. Future research should examine factors explaining differences while considering gender and nativity. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:171–178 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 02/2010; 53(2):171 - 178. DOI:10.1002/ajim.20697 · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was done to investigate differences in health behaviors by job stress level in male and female workers in a large-sized company. Participants were 576 male and 228 female workers who completed questionnaires. Job stress was measured using the 'Short Form Korean Occupational Stress Scale (SF-KOSS)'. Health behaviors included smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and diet. Frequency, mean, SD, chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression using SAS version 9.1 were used to analyze data. Smoking, drinking and regular exercise rates were not different by job stress level in male or female workers. Only regular diet was significantly different by job stress level in male and female workers. From multivariate analysis, the alcohol consumption rates for female workers differed by marital status. Regular exercise rate was significantly related to age for male workers and type of employment for female workers. After adjusting for demographic and work-related characteristics, regular diet significantly differed by shift work for male workers and marital status and shift work for female workers. The findings of the study indicate that nursing interventions should be developed to manage job stress to improve diet habits for male and female workers in large-sized companies.
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 12/2010; 40(6):852-62. DOI:10.4040/jkan.2010.40.6.852 · 0.36 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from