African trypanosomes encode three monothiol glutaredoxins (1-C-Grx1 to 3). 1-C-Grx1 has a putative CAYS active site and Cys181 as single additional cysteine. The recombinant protein forms non-covalent homodimers. As observed for other monothiol glutaredoxins, Trypanosoma brucei 1-C-Grx1 was not active in the glutaredoxin assay with hydroxyethyl disulfide and glutathione nor catalyzed the reduction of insulin disulfide. In addition, it lacked peroxidase activity and did not catalyze protein (de)glutathionylation. Upon oxidation, 1-C-Grx1 forms an intramolecular disulfide bridge and, to a minor degree, covalent dimers. Both disulfide forms are reduced by the parasite trypanothione/tryparedoxin system. 1-C-Grx1 shows mitochondrial localization. The total cellular concentration is at least 5 microm. Thus, 1-C-Grx1 is an abundant protein especially in the rudimentary organelle of the mammalian form of the parasite. Expression of 1-C-Grx1 in Grx5-deficient yeast cells with its authentic presequence targeted the protein to the mitochondria and partially restored the growth phenotype and aconitase activity of the mutant, and conferred resistance against hydroperoxides and diamide. The parasite Grx2 and 3 failed to substitute for Grx5. This is surprising because even bacterial and plant 1-Cys-glutaredoxins efficiently revert the defects, and may be due to the lack of two basic residues conserved in all but the trypanosomatid proteins.
"Purity (> 95%) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Protein concentration was estimated from absorbance measurements at 280 nm and considering that 1 mg/ml Tb 1-C-Grx1 corresponds to ΔA 280nm 0.75 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method based on the differential reactivity of thiol and thiolate with monobromobimane (mBBr) has been developed to measure nucleophilicity and acidity of protein and low-molecular weight thiols. Nucleophilicity of the thiolate is measured as the pH-independent second-order rate constant of its reaction with mBBr. The ionization constants of the thiols are obtained through the pH dependence of either second-order rate constant or initial rate of reaction. For readily available thiols, the apparent second-order rate constant is measured at different pHs and then plotted and fitted to an appropriate pH-function describing the observed number of ionization equilibria. For less available thiols, such as protein thiols, the initial rate of reaction is determined in a wide range of pHs and fitted to the appropriate pH-function. The method presented herein shows excellent sensitivity allowing the use of nanomolar concentrations of reagents. The method is suitable for scaling and high-throughput screening. Example determinations of nucleophilicity and pK(a) are presented for captopril and cysteine as low-molecular weight thiols and human peroxiredoxin 5 and Trypanosoma brucei monothiol glutaredoxin 1 as protein thiols.
"The subsequent observation that TXNs are also the reductants for non-selenium glutathione peroxidase-like enzymes (nsGPXs) , ,  reinforced the idea that TXNs are central players in trypanosomatid peroxide detoxification. Other TXN oxidants include ribonucleotide reductase , the universal minicircle sequence binding protein (UMSBP)  and a monothiol glutaredoxin (1-Cys GRX) , , i.e. molecules that are required for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication, and for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, respectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tryparedoxins (TXNs) are oxidoreductases unique to trypanosomatids (including Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites) that transfer reducing equivalents from trypanothione, the major thiol in these organisms, to sulfur-dependent peroxidases and other dithiol proteins. The existence of a TXN within the mitochondrion of trypanosomatids, capable of driving crucial redox pathways, is considered a requisite for normal parasite metabolism. Here this concept is shown not to apply to Leishmania. First, removal of the Leishmania infantum mitochondrial TXN (LiTXN2) by gene-targeting, had no significant effect on parasite survival, even in the context of an animal infection. Second, evidence is presented that no other TXN is capable of replacing LiTXN2. In fact, although a candidate substitute for LiTXN2 (LiTXN3) was found in the genome of L. infantum, this was shown in biochemical assays to be poorly reduced by trypanothione and to be unable to reduce sulfur-containing peroxidases. Definitive conclusion that LiTXN3 cannot directly reduce proteins located within inner mitochondrial compartments was provided by analysis of its subcellular localization and membrane topology, which revealed that LiTXN3 is a tail-anchored (TA) mitochondrial outer membrane protein presenting, as characteristic of TA proteins, its N-terminal end (containing the redox-active domain) exposed to the cytosol. This manuscript further proposes the separation of trypanosomatid TXN sequences into two classes and this is supported by phylogenetic analysis: i) class I, encoding active TXNs, and ii) class II, coding for TA proteins unlikely to function as TXNs. Trypanosoma possess only two TXNs, one belonging to class I (which is cytosolic) and the other to class II. Thus, as demonstrated for Leishmania, the mitochondrial redox metabolism in Trypanosoma may also be independent of TXN activity. The major implication of these findings is that mitochondrial functions previously thought to depend on the provision of electrons by a TXN enzyme must proceed differently.
PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9):e12607. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012607 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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