Cloning, functional analysis, and mitochondrial localization of Trypanosoma brucei monothiol glutaredoxin-1.
ABSTRACT African trypanosomes encode three monothiol glutaredoxins (1-C-Grx1 to 3). 1-C-Grx1 has a putative CAYS active site and Cys181 as single additional cysteine. The recombinant protein forms non-covalent homodimers. As observed for other monothiol glutaredoxins, Trypanosoma brucei 1-C-Grx1 was not active in the glutaredoxin assay with hydroxyethyl disulfide and glutathione nor catalyzed the reduction of insulin disulfide. In addition, it lacked peroxidase activity and did not catalyze protein (de)glutathionylation. Upon oxidation, 1-C-Grx1 forms an intramolecular disulfide bridge and, to a minor degree, covalent dimers. Both disulfide forms are reduced by the parasite trypanothione/tryparedoxin system. 1-C-Grx1 shows mitochondrial localization. The total cellular concentration is at least 5 microm. Thus, 1-C-Grx1 is an abundant protein especially in the rudimentary organelle of the mammalian form of the parasite. Expression of 1-C-Grx1 in Grx5-deficient yeast cells with its authentic presequence targeted the protein to the mitochondria and partially restored the growth phenotype and aconitase activity of the mutant, and conferred resistance against hydroperoxides and diamide. The parasite Grx2 and 3 failed to substitute for Grx5. This is surprising because even bacterial and plant 1-Cys-glutaredoxins efficiently revert the defects, and may be due to the lack of two basic residues conserved in all but the trypanosomatid proteins.
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ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial genome of trypanosomes, termed kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), contains thousands of minicircles and dozens of maxicircles topologically interlocked in a network. To identify proteins involved in network replication, we screened an inducible RNA interference-based genomic library for cells that lose kinetoplast DNA. In one cloned cell line with inducible kinetoplast DNA loss, we found that the RNA interference vector had aberrantly integrated into the genome resulting in overexpression of genes down-stream of the integration site (Motyka, S. A., Zhao, Z., Gull, K., and Englund, P. T. (2004) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 134, 163-167). We now report that the relevant overexpressed gene encodes a mitochondrial cytochrome b(5) reductase-like protein. This overexpression caused kDNA loss by oxidation/inactivation of the universal minicircle sequence-binding protein, which normally binds the minicircle replication origin and triggers replication. The rapid loss of maxicircles suggests that the universal minicircle sequence-binding protein might also control maxicircle replication. Several lines of evidence indicate that the cytochrome b(5) reductase-like protein controls the oxidization status of the universal minicircle sequence-binding protein via tryparedoxin, a mitochondrial redox protein. For example, overexpression of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase, which utilizes tryparedoxin, also caused oxidation of the universal minicircle sequence-binding protein and kDNA loss. Furthermore, the growth defect caused by overexpression of cytochrome b(5) reductase-like protein could be partially rescued by simultaneously overexpressing tryparedoxin.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2006; 281(27):18499-506. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRX5 gene codes for a mitochondrial glutaredoxin involved in the synthesis of iron/sulfur clusters. Its absence prevents respiratory growth and causes the accumulation of iron inside cells and constitutive oxidation of proteins. Null Deltagrx5 mutants were used as an example of continuously oxidized cells, as opposed to situations in which oxidative stress is instantaneously caused by addition of external oxidants. Whole transcriptome analysis was carried out in the mutant cells. The set of genes whose expression was affected by the absence of Grx5 does not significantly overlap with the set of genes affected in respiratory petite mutants. Many Aft1-dependent genes involved in iron utilization that are up-regulated in a frataxin mutant were also up-regulated in the absence of Grx5. BIO5 is another Aft1-dependent gene induced both upon iron deprivation and in Deltagrx5 cells; this links iron and biotin metabolism. Other genes are specifically affected under the oxidative conditions generated by the grx5 mutation. One of these is MLP1, which codes for a homologue of the Slt2 kinase. Cells lacking MLP1 and GRX5 are hypersensitive to oxidative stress caused by external agents and exhibit increased protein oxidation in relation to single mutants. This in turn points to a role for Mlp1 in protection against oxidative stress. The genes of the Hap4 regulon, which are involved in respiratory metabolism, are down-regulated in Deltagrx5 cells. This effect is suppressed by HAP4 overexpression. Inhibition of respiratory metabolism during continuous moderately oxidative conditions could be a protective response by the cell.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2004; 279(13):12386-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Biochemistry 11/1969; 10(3):533-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor