Article

No place like home: anatomy and function of the stem cell niche.

Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 37.16). 02/2008; 9(1):11-21. DOI: 10.1038/nrm2319
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Stem cells are rare cells that are uniquely capable of both reproducing themselves (self-renewing) and generating the differentiated cell types that are needed to carry out specialized functions in the body. Stem cell behaviour, in particular the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, is ultimately controlled by the integration of intrinsic factors with extrinsic cues supplied by the surrounding microenvironment, known as the stem cell niche. The identification and characterization of niches within tissues has revealed an intriguing conservation of many components, although the mechanisms that regulate how niches are established, maintained and modified to support specific tissue stem cell functions are just beginning to be uncovered.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
88 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is a common disease that typically affects older men. While oral type-5 phosphodieserase inhibitors (PDE5Is) represent a successful first-line therapy, many patients do not respond to this treatment leading researchers to look for alternative treatment modalities. Stem cell (SC) therapy is a promising new frontier for the treatment of those patients and many studies demonstrated its therapeutic effects. In this article, using a Medline database search of all relevant articles, we present a summary of the scientific principles behind SCs and their use for treatment of ED. We discuss specifically the different types of SCs used in ED, the methods of delivery tested, and the methods attempted to enhance SC therapy effect. In addition, we review the current preclinical literature on SC therapy for ED and present a summary of its findings in addition to the single clinical trial published.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 11/2014; · 12.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a small and heterogeneous subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells that possesses multilineage differentiation potential. These cells are mainly present in bone marrow, but also in other tissues, and represent a valuable resource for their ability to differentiate into different cell lines and for many therapeutic approaches. MSCs are able to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts or fibroblasts and in vitro also into cells of non-mesodermal lineages. In bone marrow, they establish the microenvironment for the growth and differentiation of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) resulting crucial for HSC maintenance and haematopoiesis. Nevertheless, the proliferation and/or the survival rate of MSCs may contribute to the onset of different types of bone sarcomas, such as Osteosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Giant Cell Tumor of Bone that represent the result of neoplastic degeneration of their corresponding committed mesenchymal precursors, probably as a consequence of the alteration of different or common biochemical pathways.
    11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cells with multipotent and self-renewal abilities play a vital role in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. They can assist tissue reconstruction through specific differentiation and secretion of various bioactive macromolecules. More and more studies confirm that the cell-fate commitment can be manipulated via constructing a specific stem cell niche. The construction of specific niches with conductive materials (conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphene) can promote stem cell differentiation towards electro-active lineages and emphasize the promising role of stem cells in electro-active tissue regeneration (e.g., nerve and heart). In this review, we summarize the commonly applied conductive materials for scaffold construction and evaluate their contributions in the regeneration of electro-active tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 12/2014; 45:671-81. · 2.74 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from