The Feeding Value of Corn Distillers Solubles for Lactating Dairy Cows

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.57). 01/2008; 91(1):279-87. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2007-0250
Source: PubMed


Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primiparous) in early to mid lactation (79.3 +/- 9.2 d in milk) were used in a multiple 5 x 5 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to evaluate and compare the use of condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the total mixed ration. The forage portion of the diets was kept constant at 27.5% corn silage and 27.5% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (control); 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4) 20% CCDS; and 5) a combination diet of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS. Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS or CCDS, whereas diet 4 contained 4% fat from CCDS and diet 5 contained 4% fat from the blend of DDGS and CCDS. The diets were balanced to provide 17% crude protein with variation in acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and fat concentration. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk yield (33.8, 36.2, 35.5, 36.0, and 36.0 kg/d) tended to be greater for diets 2 to 5 than for diet 1, whereas yields of fat (1.04 kg/d), protein (1.02 kg/d), fat percentage (2.94), and protein percentage (2.98) were similar for all diets. Energy-corrected milk (32.2 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.58 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar for all diets. Milk urea nitrogen (15.0, 10.9, 11.1, 11.0, and 11.4 mg/dL) as well as blood urea nitrogen (15.6, 12.5, 14.6, 13.8, and 14.2 mg/dL) were decreased in diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids were greater and medium-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.33, 0.68, 0.51, 0.85, and 1.07 g/100 g of fatty acids) as well as trans-10, cis-12 CLA (<0.01, 0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 g/100 g of fatty acids) were greater for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Molar proportions of ruminal acetate decreased and propionate increased for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. The results showed that CCDS is as effective as DDGS in replacing soybean meal and corn grain in the total mixed ration.


Available from: Kenneth F Kalscheur, Aug 20, 2015
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    • "Feeding lactating dairy cows the 25% DDGS diet significantly increased (P < 0.05) stearic (C 18:0 ), oleic (C 18:1 ), and linoleic (C 18:2 ) concentrations in milk (Table 6). These results were to be expected because they have been reported in many studies (Schingoethe et al., 1999; Leonardi et al., 2005; Anderson et al., 2006; Sasikala-Appukuttan et al., 2008). The reason that feeding DDGS increases unsaturated FA content in milk is because corn oil contains greater than 60% C 18:2 , some of which escapes the rumen without any biohydrogenation or with incomplete biohydrogenation, "
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7 d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few detected off-flavor scores were less than 1.5 cm on a 15-cm line scale, indicating that the differences are not practically significant. Peroxide values support the findings by the sensory panel that both feeding DDGS at 10 and 25% and vitamin E and C fortification did not practically change the oxidative stability of milk. These results, taken together, indicate that feeding DDGS under our experimental conditions modified milk composition, but did not contribute to the development of off-flavors in milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 02/2015; 98(5). DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-9056 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Another study (n = 3 treatment means) was eliminated from the database because the control diet contained 13.9% CP and was likely CP-deficient. Thus, the final database included 44 treatment means from 18 trials reported in 16 peerreviewed publications (Van Horn et al., 1985; Johnson and Huber, 1987; Voss et al., 1988; Broderick et al., 1990; Scott et al., 1991; Clark and Armentano, 1993, 1997; Powers et al., 1995; Zhu et al., 1997; Nichols et al., 1998; Schingoethe et al., 1999; Leonardi et al., 2005; Anderson et al., 2006; Kleinschmit et al., 2006; Janicek et al., 2008; Sasikala-Appukuttan et al., 2008), all published in the Journal of Dairy Science, although we did not limit data acquisition to this journal or time span. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing supply of corn distillers grains (CDG) raises questions about the extent to which they can be used in diets of lactating dairy cows. A database of treatment means (n=44) reported in 16 peer-reviewed journal articles published from 1985 to 2008 was developed. The database included response (within study) to a CDG diet compared with the control (no CDG) for milk yield (MY), milk fat concentration and yield, CDG content of the diet, and dietary composition of control and CDG diets (% of dietary dry matter). Additionally, corn grain fermentability was classified as high moisture (n=7) or dry (n=37). Data from studies with diets including more than one grain source (n=8) had been eliminated from the analysis. Dietary concentrations of CDG ranged from 4.2 to 42% across studies. Dietary concentrations in diets containing CDG were 16.8±1.91% (mean±standard deviation) crude protein, 36±15.5% corn silage, 23±8.8% corn grain, and 28±5.8% starch. Responses to CDG were 0.5±2.10 kg/cow per day (mean±standard deviation) for MY, 0.05±0.178 percentage units for milk fat concentration, and 26±77.6 g/cow per day for milk fat yield. Only MY response was related to increasing concentrations of CDG in diets and peaked at 1.2 kg/cow per day for 21% CDG. Diet fermentability was associated with responses. The greatest MY response to CDG was with 24% corn silage or 23% starch, and concentrations greater than 47% corn silage or 32% starch resulted in negative MY responses. Responses in MY differed by level of MY and were often more evident in higher- (>30.0 kg MY/d) than in lower-producing cows. Milk fat concentration response was not related to dietary CDG, but was correlated linearly with milk fat concentration of cows fed the control diet. Milk fat concentration greater than 3.6% for the control treatment was related to a negative milk fat concentration response to CDG, regardless of dietary concentration of CDG. Partially replacing high-moisture corn with CDG increased milk fat concentration by 0.16 percentage units compared with that from dry corn. When formulating diets with CDG, diet fermentability and level of MY (higher vs. lower) must be considered. Concentrations of corn silage and starch must be moderate to optimize lactational responses to CDG. Overall, lactational response to CDG in this database was dependent on diet fermentability and milk fat concentration in the control.
    Journal of Dairy Science 04/2011; 94(4):2007-21. DOI:10.3168/jds.2010-3711 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), the major byproduct of ethanol production, is a good protein and energy feed for cattle. The DDGS can be fed wet or dried with animal performance usually similar when fed as wet or dried products; however, some research results favored the wet products. Cattle diets can contain DDGS as replacements for portions of both concentrates and forages, although DDGS usually replaces concentrate ingredients. Most DDGS is from corn although wheat, barley, sorghum and other grains can be used for ethanol and DDGS production. The composition of DDGS from other grains often reflects the composition of that grain minus its starch that was fermented to ethanol. Distillers grains from corn is usually >30% CP, is high in ruminally undegradable protein, and is very good energy source (NEL ~2.25 Mcal/kg of DM) for lactating cows, growing, and finishing cattle. The modest fat concentration (10% of DM) and the readily digestible fiber (39% NDF) contribute to the high energy in DDGS. Distillers solubles are often blended with distillers grains to provide DDGS, but the solubles can also be fed separately as "thin stillage" or as "condensed distillers solubles". Protein and energy values are similar for distillers grains with or without solubles but the phosphorus content is elevated when solubles are included. The recommended amount of DDGS for feeding lactating dairy cows is up to 20% of total ration dry matter; higher amounts - as much as 40 to 50% of ration dry matter - can be successfully fed as an energy source to finishing cattle. The fiber in DDGS, which often replaces high starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Innovations in processing technology and fractionation of the distillers products will likely result in additional products for future use as livestock feeds.
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