High prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in blood donors from South West France
ABSTRACT Cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E occur in most industrialized countries and are frequent in the South West of France. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG antibodies in blood donors in this area was determined. A total of 529 samples from rural and urban blood donors were tested. The overall prevalence was 16.6%, 19.1% of rural donors and 14.2% of urban donors had anti-HEV antibodies (P = 0.13). The antibodies were widely distributed among all age groups and the sex ratio of the anti-HEV positive blood donors was 1.12 (P = 0.57). Hunting was the only pastime or profession associated with a high prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies (P = 0.038). The frequency of anti-HEV antibodies in blood donors could reflect active autochthonous transmission in this area of France. As the risk factors for HEV infection in industrialized countries are still unknown, further studies are needed to clarify the epidemiology of HEV infection in the Midi-Pyrénées region.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus is classified into four genotypes that have different geographical and host distributions. The main cause of sporadic autochthonous type E acute hepatitis in developed countries is genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution and widely infects pigs. The aim of this study was to make hypotheses concerning the origin and global dispersion routes of this genotype by reconstructing the spatial and temporal dynamics of 208 HEV genotype 3 ORF-2 sequences (retrieved from public databases) isolated in different geographical areas. The evolutionary rates, time of the most recent common ancestors (tMRCAs), epidemic growth and phylogeography of HEV-3 were co-estimated using a MCMC Bayesian method. The maximum clade credibility tree showed the existence of two distinct main clades: clade A, which consists of only European subtypes (HEV-3e and 3f), and clade B, which consists of European subtype 3c and all of the Asian subtypes (3a, 3b and 3d) sharing a common ancestor, which most probably existed in Asia in 1920s. All of the North American isolates belonged to Asian subtype 3a. On the basis of our time-scaled phylogeographical reconstruction, we hypothesise that after originating in the early 1800s in Europe, HEV reached Asia in the first decades of 1900, and then moved to America probably in the 1970s-1980s. Analysis of the skyline plot showed a sharp increase of the number of infections between the 1980s and 2005, thus suggesting the intervention of new and highly efficient routes of transmission possibly related to changes in the pig industry.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 04/2014; 25. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.04.016 · 3.26 Impact Factor
- Journal of NeuroVirology 03/2013; 19(2). DOI:10.1007/s13365-013-0156-z · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular characterization of various hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains circulating among humans and animals (particularly swine, deer and boars) in different countries has revealed substantial genetic heterogeneity. The distinctive four-genotype distribution worldwide of mammalian HEV and varying degrees of genetic relatedness among local strains suggest a long and complex evolution of HEV in different geographic regions. The population expansion likely experienced by mammalian HEV in the second half of the 20th century is consistent with an extensive genetic divergence of HEV strains and high prevalence of HEV infections in many parts of the world, including developed countries. The rate and mechanisms of human-to-human transmission and zoonotic transmission to humans vary geographically, thus contributing to the complexity of HEV molecular evolution.Virus Research 05/2011; 161(1):31-9. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.04.030 · 2.83 Impact Factor