The effect of clove oil on the transdermal delivery of ibuprofen in the rabbit by in vitro and in vivo methods.
ABSTRACT The study was designed to evaluate skin permeation enhancement effect of essential oils from Eugenia caryophyllata (clove oil) in rabbits and to compare the in vitro absorption and in vivo permeation using ibuprofen as a model drug. The in vitro results indicated a significant permeation enhancement effect of the clove oil. The group with 1% oil appeared to the flux (239 microg/cm(2)/hr), and 3% oil was 293 microg/cm(2)/hr to some extent similar with 2% azone group (327 microg/cm(2)/hr). The enhancement ratio of clove oil was 7.3. In vivo results also demonstrated that clove oil showed a significant permeation enhancement effect, but the enhancement of clove oil was relatively weak than in vitro. The group with 3% oil exhibited the higher value of area under the curve (AUC) of 80.8 microg/mL.hr, which was 2.4 times the high of control. The AUC value of 3% oil group was similar to that of 2% azone group (89.8 mug/mL.hr). The GC-MS results indicated eugenol and acetyleugenol identified from clove oil might mainly contribute to enhance in vitro and in vivo absorption of ibuprofen because of its large quantities (90.93%).
- SourceAvailable from: José Juan Escobar-ChávezPharmacology, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0222-9
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ABSTRACT: Eugenol is a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of mainly Eugenia caryophyllata (=Syzygium aromaticum) buds and leaves. It is a remarkably versatile molecule incorporated as a functional ingredient in numerous products and has found application in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, fragrance, flavour, cosmetic and various other industries. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well-researched and includes antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anticancer activities, amongst others. In addition, it is widely used in agricultural applications to protect foods from micro-organisms during storage, which might have an effect on human health, and as a pesticide and fumigant. As a functional ingredient, it is included in many dental preparations and it has also been shown to enhance skin permeation of various drugs. Eugenol is considered safe as a food additive but due to the wide range of different applications, extensive use and availability of clove oil, it is pertinent to discuss the general toxicity with special reference to contact dermatitis. This review summarises the pharmacological, agricultural and other applications of eugenol with specific emphasis on mechanism of action as well as toxicity data.Molecules 12/2012; 17(6):6953-81. DOI:10.3390/molecules17066953 · 2.42 Impact Factor