Amphiregulin and epiregulin expression in neoplastic and inflammatory lesions in the colon.
ABSTRACT Amphiregulin and epiregulin belong to the epidermal growth factor family and mediate the biological functions of epithelial and mesenchymal cells through epidermal growth factor receptors. In this study, we evaluated the amphiregulin and epiregulin expression in neoplastic and inflammatory lesions from the human colon. Surgically-obtained specimens were stained using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Amphiregulin and epiregulin were not expressed in the normal colonic mucosa, but were clearly detectable in adenomas and carcinomas. Weak immunostaining was also detected in mesenchymal cells from the tumor tissues. In the active mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, amphiregulin was mainly expressed by the epithelial cells. In addition, positive immunostaining was also detectable in the surrounding mesenchymal cells. In conclusion, amphiregulin and epiregulin may play important roles in colonic tumor growth and mucosal repair in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease.
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ABSTRACT: The ErbB tyrosine kinases (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3, and ErbB4) are cell surface growth factor receptors widely expressed in many developing mammalian tissues, including in the intestinal tract. Signaling elicited by these receptors promotes epithelial cell growth and survival, and ErbB ligands have been proposed as therapeutic agents for intestinal diseases of pediatric populations, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and inflammation associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Furthermore, emerging evidence points to reduced ErbB ligand expression and thus reduced ErbB activity in IBD, NEC, and TPN models. This review will discuss the current understanding of the role of ErbB receptors in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of pediatric intestinal inflammation, with focus on the altered signaling in disease and the molecular mechanisms by which exogenous ligands are protective.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.210.Pediatric Research 11/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intestinal inflammation is widely recognized as a pivotal player in health and disease. Defined cytologically as the infiltration of leukocytes in the lamina propria layer of the intestine, it can damage the epithelium and, on a chronic basis, induce inflammatory bowel disease and potentially cancer. The current view thus dictates that blood cell infiltration is the instigator of intestinal inflammation and tumor-promoting inflammation. This is based partially on work in humans and mice showing that intestinal damage during microbially mediated inflammation activates phagocytic cells and lymphocytes that secrete inflammatory signals promoting tissue damage and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, extensive parallel work in the Drosophila midgut shows that intestinal epithelium damage induces inflammatory signals and growth factors acting mainly in a paracrine manner to induce intestinal stem cell proliferation and tumor formation when genetically predisposed. This is accomplished without any apparent need to involve Drosophila hemocytes. Therefore, recent work on Drosophila host defense to infection by expanding its main focus on systemic immunity signaling pathways to include the study of organ homeostasis in health and disease shapes a new notion that epithelially emanating cytokines and growth factors can directly act on the intestinal stem cell niche to promote "regenerative inflammation" and potentially cancer.Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland). 01/2013; 2(2):209-231.
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ABSTRACT: Background Unlike metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) there are to date few reports concerning the predictive value of molecular biomarkers on the clinical outcome in stage II/III CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of proteins related with the EGFR- and VEGFR- signalling cascades in these patients.Methods The patients' data examined in this study were from the collective of the 5-FU/FA versus 5-FU/FA/irinotecan phase III FOGT-4 trial. Tumor tissues were stained by immunohistochemistry for VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-3, Hif-1 ¿, PTEN, AREG and EREG expression and evaluated by two independent, blinded investigators.Survival analyses were calculated for all patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to expression of all makers above.ResultsPatients with negative AREG and EREG expression on their tumor had a significant longer DFS in comparison to AREG/EREG positive ones (p< 0.05). The benefit on DFS in AREG-/EREG- patients was even stronger in the group that received 5-FU/FA/irinotecan as adjuvant treatment (p=0.002). Patients with strong expression of PTEN profited more in terms of OS under adjuvant treatment containing irinotecan (p< 0.05). Regarding markers of the VEGFR- pathway we found no correlation of VEGF-C- and VEGFR-3 expression with clinical outcome. Patients with negative VEGF-D expression had a trend to live longer when treated with 5-FU/FA (p=0.106). Patients who were negative for Hif-1 ¿, were disease-free in more than 50% at the end of the study and showed significant longer DFS-rates than those positive for Hif-1 ¿ (p=0.007). This benefit was even stronger at the group treated with 5-FU/FA/irinotecan (p=0.026). Finally, AREG-/EREG-/PTEN+ patients showed a trend to live longer under combined treatment combination.Conclusions The addition of irinotecan to adjuvant treatment with 5-FU/FA does not provide OS or DFS benefit in patients with stage II/III CRC. Nevertheless, AREG/EREG negative, PTEN positive and Hif-1 ¿ negative patients might profit significantly in terms of DFS from a treatment containing fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan. Our results suggest a predictive value of these biomarkers concerning adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU/FA +/¿ irinotecan in stage II/III colorectal cancer.Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 10/2014; 33(1):83. · 3.27 Impact Factor