Early donor management increases the retrieval rate of lungs for transplantation.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Heart and Lung Transplantation Unit, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2008; 85(1):278-86; discussion 286. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.07.092
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lung transplantation activity is frustrated by donor lung availability. We sought to examine the effect of active donor management and hormone administration on pulmonary function and yield in cadaveric heart-beating potential lung donors.
We studied 182 potential lung donors (arterial oxygen tension [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FIO2] ratio > or = 230). From this group, 60 patients (120 lungs) were allocated, within a randomized trial, to receive methylprednisolone (1 g), triiodothyronine (0.8 microg/kg bolus and 0.113 microg/kg/h infusion), both methylprednisolone and triiodothyronine, or placebo as soon as feasible after consent and initial assessment. Trial donors underwent protocol-guided optimization of ventilation and hemodynamics, lung water assessment, and bronchoscopy. Function was assessed by PaO2/FIO2 ratio, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). A nontrial group of 122 donors (244 lungs) received similar management without bronchoscopy, pulmonary artery flotation catheter monitoring, or lung water assessment.
Within the trial, management commenced within a median of 2 hours (interquartile range, 0.5 to 3.5 hours) of consent and continued for an average of 6.9 +/- 1.2 hours. The PaO2/FIO2 ratio deteriorated (p = 0.028) from 397 +/- 78 (95% CL, 376 to 417) to 359 +/- 126 (95% CL, 328 to 390) and EVLWI from 9.7 +/- 4.5 mL/kg (95% CL, 8.6 to 10.9 mL/kg) to 10.8 +/- 5.2 mL/kg (95% CL, 9.4 to 12.2 mL/kg; p = 0.009). PVR remained unchanged (p = 0.28). At end management, 48 of 120 trial lungs (40%) were transplanted versus 66 of 244 nontrial lungs (27%; p = 0.016). Neither methylprednisolone and triiodothyronine nor T3 increased lung yield or affected PaO2/FIO2 or EVLWI; however, methylprednisolone attenuated the increase in EVLWI (p = 0.009).
Early active management of lung donors increases yield. Steroid administration reduces progressive lung water accumulation.

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    ABSTRACT: Summary Current guidelines recommend the administration of hormonal combination therapy including immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids to donors with low left ventricular ejection fractions and to consider hormonal therapy administration to all donors. However, these recommendations are largely based on observational data. The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in brain-dead potential organ donors. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the earliest accessible date up to March 2013 with a qualified librarian. Studies comparing the effects of any corticosteroid with those of placebo, standard treatment, or another active comparator were sought. Two independent reviewers evaluated each citation retrieved and selected studies independently and in duplicate. A third independent reviewer resolved any disagreement. Outcomes included donor haemodynamics and oxygenation, organ procurement, recipient survival, and graft survival. This review included 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 observational studies. The majority used methylprednisolone and often combined it with other hormonal therapies. Ten out of the 11 RCTs yielded neutral results. However, in observational studies, use of corticosteroids generally resulted in improved donor haemodynamics and oxygenation status, increased organ procurement, and improved recipient and graft survival. Overall quality of included studies was poor, as most of them presented high risks of confounding. This SR highlights the low quality and conflicting evidence supporting the routine use of corticosteroids in the management of organ donors. A large trial evaluating the effect of corticosteroids on outcomes such as organ recovery and graft survival is warranted.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to assess treatment patterns and examine organ utilization in the setting of single lung transplantation (SLT). Methods The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for all SLTs performed from 1987-2011. Trends in utilization of the second donor lung were assessed, both from recipient and donor perspectives. Donors were stratified into two groups: those donating both lungs and those donating only one. Independent predictors of utilizing only one donor lung were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results 10,361 SLTs were identified, originating from 7,232 unique donors. Of these donors, only 3,129 (43.3%) had both lungs utilized, resulting in over 200 second donor lungs going unused annually since 2005, with no significant increase in utilization over time (p=.95). Following adjustment, donor characteristics predicting the second donor lung going unused included B/AB blood groups (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.69 and 2.62, respectively, p<.001), lower body surface area (AOR 1.30, p=.02), lower donor pO2 (AOR 0.90 per 50 mmHg increase, p<.001), pulmonary infection (AOR 1.15, p=.04), extended criteria donor status (AOR 1.66, p<.001), and head trauma or anoxia cause of death (AOR 1.57 and 1.53, p<.001 and p=.001, respectively). Conclusions Among donors for SLT, less than half of all cases led to use of the second donor lung. While anatomic, infectious, or other pathophysiologic issues prohibit 100% utilization, more aggressive donor matching efforts may be a simple method of increasing the utilization of this scarce resource, particularly for less common blood types.
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