Early donor management increases the retrieval rate of lungs for transplantation.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Heart and Lung Transplantation Unit, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2008; 85(1):278-86; discussion 286. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.07.092
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lung transplantation activity is frustrated by donor lung availability. We sought to examine the effect of active donor management and hormone administration on pulmonary function and yield in cadaveric heart-beating potential lung donors.
We studied 182 potential lung donors (arterial oxygen tension [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FIO2] ratio > or = 230). From this group, 60 patients (120 lungs) were allocated, within a randomized trial, to receive methylprednisolone (1 g), triiodothyronine (0.8 microg/kg bolus and 0.113 microg/kg/h infusion), both methylprednisolone and triiodothyronine, or placebo as soon as feasible after consent and initial assessment. Trial donors underwent protocol-guided optimization of ventilation and hemodynamics, lung water assessment, and bronchoscopy. Function was assessed by PaO2/FIO2 ratio, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). A nontrial group of 122 donors (244 lungs) received similar management without bronchoscopy, pulmonary artery flotation catheter monitoring, or lung water assessment.
Within the trial, management commenced within a median of 2 hours (interquartile range, 0.5 to 3.5 hours) of consent and continued for an average of 6.9 +/- 1.2 hours. The PaO2/FIO2 ratio deteriorated (p = 0.028) from 397 +/- 78 (95% CL, 376 to 417) to 359 +/- 126 (95% CL, 328 to 390) and EVLWI from 9.7 +/- 4.5 mL/kg (95% CL, 8.6 to 10.9 mL/kg) to 10.8 +/- 5.2 mL/kg (95% CL, 9.4 to 12.2 mL/kg; p = 0.009). PVR remained unchanged (p = 0.28). At end management, 48 of 120 trial lungs (40%) were transplanted versus 66 of 244 nontrial lungs (27%; p = 0.016). Neither methylprednisolone and triiodothyronine nor T3 increased lung yield or affected PaO2/FIO2 or EVLWI; however, methylprednisolone attenuated the increase in EVLWI (p = 0.009).
Early active management of lung donors increases yield. Steroid administration reduces progressive lung water accumulation.

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    Journal of translational medicine. 05/2014; 12(1):111.
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    ABSTRACT: Most lung transplants are obtained from brain-dead donors. The physiopathology of brain death involves hemodynamics, the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammatory mechanisms. Administering methylprednisolone 60 min after inducing brain death in rats has been shown to modulate pulmonary inflammatory activity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of methylprednisolone on transplanted rat lungs from donors treated 60 min after brain death. Twelve Wistar rats were anesthetized, and brain death was induced. They were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6), namely a control group, which was administered saline solution, and a methylprednisolone group, which received the drug 60 min after the induction of brain death. All of the animals were observed and ventilated for 2 h prior to being submitted to lung transplantation. We evaluated the hemodynamic and blood gas parameters, histological score, lung tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, level of superoxide dismutase, level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and level of interleukin-1 beta. After transplantation, a significant reduction in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1β was observed in the group that received methylprednisolone (p = 0.0084 and p = 0.0155, respectively). There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and superoxide dismutase levels between the control and methylprednisolone groups (p = 0.2644 and p = 0.7461, respectively). There were no significant differences in the blood gas parameters, hemodynamics, and histological alterations between the groups. The administration of methylprednisolone after brain death in donor rats reduces inflammatory activity in transplanted lungs but has no influence on parameters related to oxidative stress.
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    ABSTRACT: Organ donations continue to fall, failing to meet the clinical requirements for heart transplantation. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of brain stem death including hormonal and inflammatory changes may lead to significant donor heart injury. Early donor management may potentially alleviate these changes and therefore increase the number of available hearts for transplantation. We aimed to investigate whether early management of borderline donors can increase the heart retrieval rate. Between September 2011 and February 2013, we performed early donor management of 26 potential heart donors in the intensive care units of the respective donor hospitals. At the time of referral donors were considered as borderline based on high-dose inotrope requirements, history of hypertension and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Our management protocol included insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and performance of cardiac output studies, weaning noradrenaline and commencing arginine vasopressin, and administration of tri-iodothyronine, methylprednisolone and insulin. Our primary end-point was donor heart acceptance, depending collectively on the results of cardiac output studies, cardiac contractility and coronary artery patency at the time of retrieval operation. We retrieved 14 (56%) borderline hearts after donor management (Group A) with a 30-day survival rate of 86%. Twelve (44%) organs were declined due to poor heart function (n = 8; 66.7%; P < 0.001) and/or palpable coronary artery disease (n = 4; 33.3%; P = 0.018) (Group B). The mean age of Groups A and B was 42.77 and 47.78 years, respectively (P = 0.19). Most of the female donors, i.e. 10 (83%), were declined, and only 4 (27%) were accepted (P = 0.005). Majority of patients in both groups (Group A: 71.4%; n = 10; and Group B: 66.7%; n = 8) were on high-dose noradrenaline (>0.08 μg kg(-1) min(-2)) at the time of donor offer. Group A had a mean cardiac output of 6.29 and 3.09 l/min for Group B (P = 0.01). A positive smoking history was present in 28.6% (n = 4) and 33.5% (n = 4) in Groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.793). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed on 3 (21.4%) patients in Group A and 2 (16.7%) in Group B (P = 0.759). A history of hypertension was present in 7.1% (n = 1) of the Group A and 33.3% (n = 4) of the Group B donors. In our study, we were able to retrieve more than half of the potential heart donors as a result of early active donor management without impacting on the post-transplant recipient outcome. Early active donor management may assist in increasing the number of heart transplantations, thus warranting further investigation.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 04/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor

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