RAR1 and HSP90 form a complex with Rac/Rop GTPase and function in innate-immune responses in rice.
ABSTRACT A rice (Oryza sativa) Rac/Rop GTPase, Os Rac1, is involved in innate immunity, but its molecular function is largely unknown. RAR1 (for required for Mla12 resistance) and HSP90 (a heat shock protein 90 kD) are important components of R gene-mediated disease resistance, and their function is conserved in several plant species. HSP90 has also recently been shown to be important in mammalian innate immunity. However, their functions at the molecular level are not well understood. In this study, we examined the functional relationships between Os Rac1, RAR1, and HSP90. Os RAR1-RNA interference (RNAi) rice plants had impaired basal resistance to a compatible race of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and the virulent bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. Constitutively active Os Rac1 complemented the loss of resistance, suggesting that Os Rac1 and RAR1 are functionally linked. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with rice cell culture extracts indicate that Rac1 forms a complex with RAR1, HSP90, and HSP70 in vivo. Studies with Os RAR1-RNAi and treatment with geldanamycin, an HSP90-specific inhibitor, showed that RAR1 and HSP90 are essential for the Rac1-mediated enhancement of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses in rice cell cultures. Furthermore, the function of HSP90, but not RAR1, may be essential for their association with the Rac1 complex. Os Rac1 also regulates RAR1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Together, our results indicate that Rac1, RAR1, HSP90, and HSP70 form one or more protein complexes in rice cells and suggest that these proteins play important roles in innate immunity in rice.
Article: Inhibition of heat shock protein HSP90-pp60v-src heteroprotein complex formation by benzoquinone ansamycins: essential role for stress proteins in oncogenic transformation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms by which oncogenic tyrosine kinases induce cellular transformation are unclear. Herbimycin A, geldanamycin, and certain other benzoquinone ansamycins display an unusual capacity to revert tyrosine kinase-induced oncogenic transformation. As an approach to the study of v-src-mediated transformation, we examined ansamycin action in transformed cells and found that drug-induced reversion could be achieved without direct inhibition of src phosphorylating activity. To identify mechanisms other than kinase inhibition for drug-mediated reversion, we prepared a solid phase-immobilized geldanamycin derivative and affinity precipitated the molecular targets with which the drug interacted. In a range of cell lines, immobilized geldanamycin bound elements of a major class of heat shock protein (HSP90) in a stable and pharmacologically specific manner. Consistent with these binding data, we found that soluble geldanamycin and herbimycin A inhibited specifically the formation of a previously described src-HSP90 heteroprotein complex. A related benzoquinone ansamycin that failed to revert transformed cells did not inhibit the formation of this complex. These results demonstrate that HSP participation in multimolecular complex formation is required for src-mediated transformation and can provide a target for drug modulation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1994; 91(18):8324-8. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Ubiquitin ligase-associated protein SGT1 is required for host and nonhost disease resistance in plants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homologues of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein SGT1 are required for disease resistance in plants mediated by nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. Here, by silencing SGT1 in Nicotiana benthamiana, we extend these findings and demonstrate that SGT1 has an unexpectedly general role in disease resistance. It is required for resistance responses mediated by NBS-LRR and other R proteins in which pathogen-derived elicitors are recognized either inside or outside the host plant cell. A requirement also exists for SGT1 in nonhost resistance in which all known members of a host species are resistant against every characterized isolate of a pathogen. Our findings show that silencing SGT1 affects diverse types of disease resistance in plants and support the idea that R protein-mediated and nonhost resistance may involve similar mechanisms.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2002; 99(16):10865-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor