Identification and characterization of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe TER1 telomerase RNA.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 11.63). 02/2008; 15(1):34-42. DOI: 10.1038/nsmb1354
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the catalytic subunit of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomerase holoenzyme was identified over ten years ago, the unusual heterogeneity of its telomeric DNA made it difficult to identify its RNA component. We used a new two-step immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-PCR technique to identify the S. pombe telomerase RNA, which we call TER1. TER1 RNA was 1,213 nucleotides long, similar in size to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1. TER1 RNA associated in vivo with the two known subunits of the S. pombe telomerase holoenzyme, Est1p and Trt1p, and neither association was dependent on the other holoenzyme component. We present a model to explain how telomerase introduces heterogeneity into S. pombe telomeres. The technique used here to identify TER1 should be generally applicable to other model organisms.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In both fission yeast and humans, the shelterin complex plays central roles in regulation of telomerase recruitment, protection of telomeres against DNA damage response factors, and formation of heterochromatin at telomeres. While shelterin is essential for limiting activation of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATR and ATM at telomeres, these kinases are required for stable maintenance of telomeres. In fission yeast, Rad3ATR and Tel1ATM kinases are redundantly required for telomerase recruitment, since Rad3ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 promotes interaction between Ccq1 and the telomerase subunit Est1. However, it remained unclear how protein-protein interactions within the shelterin complex (consisting of Taz1, Rap1, Poz1, Tpz1, Pot1 and Ccq1) contribute to the regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. In this study, we identify domains and amino acid residues that are critical for mediating Tpz1-Ccq1 and Tpz1-Poz1 interaction within the fission yeast shelterin complex. Using separation of function Tpz1 mutants that maintain Tpz1-Pot1 interaction but specifically disrupt either Tpz1-Ccq1 or Tpz1-Poz1 interaction, we then establish that Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction promotes Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation, telomerase recruitment, checkpoint inhibition and telomeric heterochromatin formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Tpz1-Poz1 interaction promotes telomere association of Poz1, and loss of Poz1 from telomeres leads to increases in Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment, and telomeric heterochromatin formation defect. In addition, our studies establish that Tpz1-Poz1 and Tpz1-Ccq1 interactions redundantly fulfill the essential telomere protection function of the shelterin complex, since simultaneous loss of both interactions caused immediate loss of cell viability for the majority of cells and generation of survivors with circular chromosomes. Based on these findings, we suggest that the negative regulatory function of Tpz1-Poz1 interaction works upstream of Rad3ATR kinase, while Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction works downstream of Rad3ATR kinase to facilitate Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004708. · 8.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 3' end of Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomerase RNA (SpTER1) is generated by spliceosomal cleavage, a reaction that corresponds to the first step of splicing. The observation that the spliceosome functions in 3' end processing raised questions about the evolutionary origin and conservation of this mechanism. We now present data in support of spliceosomes generating 3' ends of telomerase RNAs in other fungi. Strikingly, the mechanistic basis for restricting spliceosomal splicing to the first transesterification reaction differs substantially among species. Unlike S. pombe, two other fission yeasts rely on hyperstabilization of the U6 snRNA-5' splice site interaction to impede the 2nd step of splicing. In contrast, a non-canonical 5' splice site blocks the second transesterification reaction in Aspergillus species. These results demonstrate a conserved role for spliceosomes functioning in 3' end processing. Divergent mechanisms of uncoupling the two steps of splicing argue for multiple origins of this pathway.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:6104. · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current models depict that telomerase recruitment equates to activation. Telomeric DNA-binding proteins and the telomerase accessory proteins coordinate the recruitment of telomerase to the ends of chromosomes in a telomere length- and cell-cycle-dependent manner [1-4]. Recent studies have demonstrated that the telomeric protein TPP1 and its binding protein TIN2 are key proteins for both telomerase recruitment and processivity in mammalian cells [5-7]. Although the precise molecular mechanism of telomerase recruitment has not yet been established, targeted point mutations within the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain of TPP1 have been shown to impair telomerase association and processivity [8-10]. In fission yeast, telomerase is recruited through an interaction between the telomerase subunit Est1 and Ccq1, a component of the Pot1-Tpz1 telomere complex (POT1-TPP1 orthologs) [11-15]. Here, we demonstrate that association of telomerase with telomeres does not engage activity. We describe a mutation of Tpz1 that causes critical telomere shortening despite telomeric accumulation of the telomerase catalytic subunit, Trt1. Furthermore, Est1-directed telomerase association with Ccq1 is transient, and the Est1-Ccq1 interaction does not remain the bridge between telomeres and telomerase. Rather, direct interaction of Trt1 with Tpz1 is critical for telomere elongation. Moreover, Ccq1, which has been well characterized as a telomerase recruiter, is also required for the activation of telomere-associated telomerase. Our findings reveal a layer of telomerase regulation that controls activity after recruitment.
    Current biology : CB. 08/2014;


Available from