Body Mass Index and Diverticular Disease: A 28-Year Follow-Up Study in Men
ABSTRACT Diverticular disease increased steadily concomitant with elevated rates of overweight and obesity during the 20th century. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether overweight and obesity in midlife predict future diverticular disease in men.
This was a prospective cohort study of a general population of men living in Göteborg, Sweden. A community-based sample of 7,494 men, investigated when aged 47 to 55 years, were followed from baseline in 1970 to 1973 for a maximum of 28 years. Hospitalization with a discharge diagnosis of diverticular disease according to the Swedish hospital discharge register was measured.
Totally, 112 men (1.5 percent) were hospitalized with diverticular disease. A relationship between body mass index and diverticular disease was demonstrated; men with a body mass index between 20 and 22.5 kg/m2 had the lowest risk. After adjustment for covariates, the risk increased linearly in men who had a body mass index of 22.5 to 25 (multiple-adjusted hazard ratio, 2.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.9-6; 25-27.5 (hazard ratio, 3 (1.2-7.6)), 27.5-30 (hazard ratio 3.2, (1.2-8.6)), and 30 or greater (hazard ratio 4.4, (1.6-12.3)) kg/m2 (P for linear trend = 0.004). Men with a body mass index of < or =20 kg/m2 had a nonsignificantly elevated risk (hazard ratio, 3 (0.7-12.5)). Smoking (hazard ratio, 1.6 (1.1-2.3) and diastolic blood pressure (hazard ratio, 1.02 (1.01-1.04) per mmHg) also were independently related to risk of diverticular disease.
In a large community-based sample of middle-aged men, overweight and obesity were strongly linked to future severe diverticular disease leading to hospitalization.
Conference Paper: A comparison of output filter size in DC/DC converters[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The output filters play a very important role in DC/DC converters. Important aspects of converters such as dynamic response, size and cost are closely related to the components of the filter. Small values for the filter components improve the performance of the converters and increase the power density, whereas minimum values should be provided to guarantee the filtering objective. A comparison of the typical LC configuration as output filter for several DC/DC converters, taking into account switching frequency issues and soft switching techniques, is described in this paper. Results show that some converters have advantages from the point of view of the output filterPower Electronics Specialists Conference, 1996. PESC '96 Record., 27th Annual IEEE; 07/1996
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ABSTRACT: An approach to the problem of autonomous mobile robot obstacle avoidance using reinforcement learning neural network is proposed in this paper. Q-learning is one kind of reinforcement learning method that is similar to dynamic programming and the neural network has a powerful ability to store the values. We integrate these two methods with the aim to ensure autonomous robot behavior in complicated unpredictable environment. The simulation results show that the simulated robot using the reinforcement learning neural network can enhance its learning ability obviously and can finish the given task in a complex environment.Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2005. Proceedings of 2005 International Conference on; 09/2005