Successful use of etanercept in the treatment of acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome.

Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya Higashi Municipal Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.
Modern Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 2.21). 02/2008; 18(1):72-5. DOI: 10.1007/s10165-007-0006-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hemophagocytic syndrome has been reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 25-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus developed hemophagocytic syndrome that was refractory to the combination therapy with high-dose corticosteroid, cyclosporine, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and successfully treated with the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor, etanercept. This case report provided the first observation that etanercept may be useful for the treatment of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with systemic lupus erythematosus refractory to conventional therapy.

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    ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of systemic inflammatory disorders. Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is one of the systemic autoimmune diseases associated with reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS). This study aimed to evaluate the characteristic findings, predictive factors, and prognosis of RHS in patients with AOSD.We retrospectively evaluated 109 patients diagnosed with AOSD and reviewed their clinical data and laboratory findings, including the biopsy results of 21 AOSD patients with RHS. Moreover, data from 17 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) patients evaluated during the same period were compared with those from the RHS patients.Twenty-one patients (19.3%) developed RHS during the course of AOSD, and only 7 patients (6.4%) were confirmed by bone marrow, liver, or lymph node biopsy. AOSD patients with RHS showed significantly higher frequencies of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and lymphadenopathy than did those without RHS. Moreover, patients with RHS showed significantly higher relapse rates than those without RHS (61.9% vs 18.2%, P < 0.001). Possible triggering factors inducing hemophagocytosis were detected in 16 of 21 RHS patients (76.2%): disease flare in 12 patients (75%), infection in 3 patients (18.8%), and drug use in 1 patient (6.3%). AOSD patients with RHS showed higher frequencies of leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypofibrinogenemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels than did those without RHS. Multivariate logistic regression with forward selection procedure showed that low platelet count (<121,000/mm), anemia, and hepatomegaly were independent predictors of RHS. Patients with definite RHS and those with probable RHS showed comparable results. Although RHS is a life-threatening complication of AOSD, long-term prognosis was observed to be similar in patients with and those without RHS. Compared to RHS patients, HLH patients had poor prognosis, such as higher death rates (52.9% vs 9.5%, P = 0.005).RHS can be considered when an AOSD patient shows at least 2 of the following 3 findings: low platelet count, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Diagnostic confirmation by biopsy may not be essential if typical clinical findings of RHS are present. Moreover, prognosis of RHS was better than that of HLH diagnosed by the presence of trilineage cytopenia at admission.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to identify predictors for the response to treatment of acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome (ALHS).
    Lupus 11/2014; DOI:10.1177/0961203314559086 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a potentially fatal complication of immunosuppression for transplantation. However, it presents with heterogeneous clinical symptoms (fever, disturbed consciousness, and hepatosplenomegaly) and laboratory findings (pancytopenia, elevated hepatic enzyme levels, abnormal coagulation, and hyperferritinemia), impeding diagnosis. Case 1: A 39-year-old female developed fever 4 years after ABO-incompatible living-related renal transplantation. Laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated hepatic enzymes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA seropositivity, and hyperferritinemia. EBV-associated HPS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. Steroid pulse therapy and etoposide were ineffective. Disseminated intravascular coagulation resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died 32 days after disease onset. Case 2: A 67-year-old male was admitted with rotavirus enteritis a month after living-unrelated renal transplantation. He developed sudden-onset high fever, disturbance of consciousness, and tachypnea 8 days after admission. Laboratory findings revealed elevated hepatic enzyme levels, hyperkalemia, and hyperferritinemia. Emergency continuous hemodiafiltration ameliorated the fever, and steroid pulse therapy improved abnormal laboratory values. Varicella-zoster virus meningitis was confirmed by spinal tap. Acyclovir improved consciousness, and he was discharged 87 days after admission. Fatal virus-associated HPS may develop in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Pathognomonic hyperferritinemia is useful for differential diagnosis.
    01/2015; 2015:876301. DOI:10.1155/2015/876301