Successful use of etanercept in the treatment of acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome.
ABSTRACT Hemophagocytic syndrome has been reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 25-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus developed hemophagocytic syndrome that was refractory to the combination therapy with high-dose corticosteroid, cyclosporine, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and successfully treated with the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor, etanercept. This case report provided the first observation that etanercept may be useful for the treatment of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with systemic lupus erythematosus refractory to conventional therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: TNF-α inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in large, randomized controlled clinical trials either as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-inflammatory or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the treatment of chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases. Etanercept is a fusion protein that acts as a 'decoy receptor' for TNF-α. Areas covered: This paper evaluates the efficacy and safety of etanercept in patients with chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases. Expert opinion: Etanercept was first approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and subsequently of chronic plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and juvenile RA. Etanercept as other TNF-α inhibitors, particularly infliximab, may be administered off-label to treat other chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases such as systemic sclerosis, Behcet disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, dermatomyositis and mixed connective tissue disease. Early etanercept treatment prevents joint damage and helps to avoid long-term disability in arthritis. Etanercept administered at a dose of 50 mg once weekly is effective in inducing an earlier remission of RA, and etanercept 50 mg twice weekly may favor a more rapid improvement of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Etanercept and adalimumab may exert beneficial effects on lipid profile and improve endothelial dysfunction. Appropriate screening tests for latent tuberculosis, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus should be performed before starting etanercept. TNF-α inhibitors including etanercept are contraindicated in patients with demyelinating diseases.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 03/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
Article: Adult haemophagocytic syndrome.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Haemophagocytic syndromes (haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) have a wide range of causes, symptoms, and outcomes, but all lead to a hyperinflammatory response and organ damage-mainly reported in paediatric patients, but reports of adult presentation are increasing. Analysis of the genetic and molecular pathophysiology of these syndromes have improved the understanding of the crosstalk between lymphocytes and histiocytes and their regulatoty mechanisms. Clinical presentations with a broad differential diagnosis, and often life-threatening outcome, complicate the management, which might include supportive intensive care, immunosuppressive and biological treatments, or haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Insufficient knowledge of these syndromes could contribute to poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment and improve the quality of life and survival of patients with this challenging disorder.The Lancet 11/2013; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We experienced three patients with refractory or severe hemophagocytic syndrome associated with the activity of systemic lupus erythematosus, so-called acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome (ALHS). All patients were successfully treated with intermittent intravenous injections of cyclophosphamide (IVCY). In each patient, hemophagocytosis was found during bone marrow examination, and infectious causes of hemophagocytic syndrome were carefully excluded. Patients 1 and 2 were refractory to combination therapy with a high-dose corticosteroid and rituximab or cyclosporine and were successfully treated with additive IVCY. Patient 3 had very severe ALHS that developed after cardiac surgery but was successfully treated with a high-dose corticosteroid and IVCY. We conducted a literature review of adult ALHS and analyzed 54 cases reported from 2006 to 2013. Although the clinical and laboratory features were diverse, fever, bicytopenia or pancytopenia, and hyperferritinemia were almost universal. Including our 3 patients, a total of 16 have reportedly been treated with IVCY-containing regimens, and ALHS was successfully controlled in most of them without switching or adding other therapies. We suggest that combination therapy with IVCY and corticosteroids may be useful to treat severe or refractory ALHS.Clinical Rheumatology 12/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor