Assessment of tissue repair in full thickness chondral defects in the rabbit using magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation measurements
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if the noninvasive and nondestructive technique of magnetic resonance imaging could be used to quantify the amount of repair tissue that fills surgically-induced chondral defects in the rabbit. Sixteen 4-mm diameter full-thickness chondral defects were created. A photopolymerizable hydrogel was used to seal the defects as a treatment modality. At 5 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the distal femur was subjected to MRI analyses at high field (9.4 T). The transverse relaxation time (T(2)) in each defect was measured. Histology and histomorphometric analysis were used to quantify the amount of repair tissue that filled each defect. The relationship between T(2) and percent tissue fill was found to fit well to a negatively sloped, linear model. The linear (Pearson's product-moment) correlation coefficient was found to be r = -0.82 and the associated coefficient of determination was r(2) = 0.67. This correlation suggests that the MRI parameter T(2) can be used to track changes in the amount of repair tissue that fills cartilage defects. This would be especially useful in in vivo cartilage tissue engineering studies that attempt to determine optimal biomaterials for scaffold design.
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ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage injuries occur frequently in the knee joint. Photopolymerizable cartilage tissue engineering approaches appear promising; however, fundamentally, forming a stable interface between the subchondral bone and tissue engineered cartilage components remains a major challenge. We investigated the utility of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles to promote controlled bone-growth across the bone-cartilage interface in an in vitro engineered tissue model system using bone marrow derived stem cells. Samples incorporated with HA demonstrated significantly higher interfacial shear strength (at the junction between engineered cartilage and engineered bone) compared with the constructs without HA (p < 0.05), after 28 days of culture. Interestingly, this increased interfacial shear strength due to the presence of HA was observed as early as 7 days and appeared to have sustained itself for an additional three weeks without interacting with strength increases attributable to subsequent secretion of engineered tissue matrix. Histological evidence showed that there was ∼7.5% bone in-growth into the cartilage region from the bone side. The mechanism of enhanced engineered cartilage to bone integration with HA incorporation appeared to be facilitated by the deposition of calcium phosphate in the transition zone. These findings indicate that controlled bone in-growth using HA incorporation permits more stable anchorage of the injectable hydrogel-based engineered cartilage construct via augmented integration between bone and cartilage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 07/2014; 102(5). DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33073 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-destructive structural evaluation of the osteochondral unit is challenging. Here, the capability of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) at 9.4 Tesla (T) was explored to examine osteochondral repair ex vivo in a preclinical large animal model. A specific aim of this study was to detect recently described alterations of the subchondral bone associated with cartilage repair. Osteochondral samples of medial femoral condyles from adult ewes containing full-thickness articular cartilage defects treated with marrow stimulation were obtained after 6 month in vivo and scanned in a 9.4 T μMRI. Ex vivo imaging of small osteochondral samples (typical volume: 1-2 cm(3)) at μMRI was optimised by variation of repetition time (TR), time echo (TE), flip angle (FA), spatial resolution and number of excitations (NEX) from standard MultiSliceMultiEcho (MSME) and three-dimensional (3D) spoiled GradientEcho (SGE) sequences. A 3D SGE sequence with the parameters: TR = 10 ms, TE = 3 ms, FA = 10 °, voxel size = 120 × 120 × 120 μm(3) and NEX = 10 resulted in the best fitting for sample size, image quality, scanning time and artifacts. An isovolumetric voxel shape allowed for multiplanar reconstructions. Within the osteochondral unit articular cartilage, cartilaginous repair tissue and bone marrow could clearly be distinguished from the subchondral bone plate and subarticular spongiosa. Specific alterations of the osteochondral unit associated with cartilage repair such as persistent drill holes, subchondral bone cysts, sclerosis of the subchondral bone plate and of the subarticular spongiosa and intralesional osteophytes were precisely detected. High resolution, non-destructive ex vivo analysis of the entire osteochondral unit in a preclinical large animal model that is sufficient for further analyses is possible using μMRI at 9.4 T. In particular, 9.4 T is capable of accurately depicting alterations of the subchondral bone that are associated with osteochondral repair.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 04/2015; 16(1):91. DOI:10.1186/s12891-015-0543-0 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the 2D and 3D MOCART system obtained with 9.4 T high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the ex vivo analysis of osteochondral repair in a translational model and to correlate the data with semiquantitative histological analysis. Methods: Osteochondral samples representing all levels of repair (sheep medial femoral condyles; n = 38) were scanned in a 9.4 T high-field MRI. The 2D and adapted 3D MOCART systems were used for grading after point allocation to each category. Each score was correlated with corresponding reconstructions between both MOCART systems. Data were next correlated with corresponding categories of an elementary (Wakitani) and a complex (Sellers) histological scoring system as gold standards. Results: Correlations between most 2D and 3D MOCART score categories were high, while mean total point values of 3D MOCART scores tended to be 15.8-16.1 points higher compared to the 2D MOCART scores based on a Bland-Altman analysis. "Defect fill" and "total points" of both MOCART scores correlated with corresponding categories of Wakitani and Sellers scores (all P <= 0.05). "Subchondral bone plate" also correlated between 3D MOCART and Sellers scores (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Most categories of the 2D and 3D MOCART systems correlate, while total scores were generally higher using the 3D MOCART system. Structural categories "total points" and "defect fill" can reliably be assessed by 9.4 T MRI evaluation using either system, "subchondral bone plate" using the 3D MOCART score. High-field MRI is valuable to objectively evaluate osteochondral repair in translational settings.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2014; 22(10):1386-95. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2014.05.027 · 4.66 Impact Factor