Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States: part I

CDC, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3717, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 01/2008; 58(1):15-25. DOI: 10.1002/art.23177
Source: PubMed


To provide a single source for the best available estimates of the US prevalence of and number of individuals affected by arthritis overall, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis, the spondylarthritides, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. A companion article (part II) addresses additional conditions.
The National Arthritis Data Workgroup reviewed published analyses from available national surveys, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). For analysis of overall arthritis, we used the NHIS. Because data based on national population samples are unavailable for most specific rheumatic conditions, we derived estimates from published studies of smaller, defined populations. For specific conditions, the best available prevalence estimates were applied to the corresponding 2005 US population estimates from the Census Bureau, to estimate the number affected with each condition.
More than 21% of US adults (46.4 million persons) were found to have self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis. We estimated that rheumatoid arthritis affects 1.3 million adults (down from the estimate of 2.1 million for 1995), juvenile arthritis affects 294,000 children, spondylarthritides affect from 0.6 million to 2.4 million adults, systemic lupus erythematosus affects from 161,000 to 322,000 adults, systemic sclerosis affects 49,000 adults, and primary Sjögren's syndrome affects from 0.4 million to 3.1 million adults.
Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions continue to be a large and growing public health problem. Estimates for many specific rheumatic conditions rely on a few, small studies of uncertain generalizability to the US population. This report provides the best available prevalence estimates for the US, but for most specific conditions, more studies generalizable to the US or addressing understudied populations are needed.

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Available from: Hilal Maradit Kremers, Nov 26, 2014
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    • "Rheumatoid arthritis (OMIM 180300) and schizophrenia (OMIM 181500) are, superficially, remarkably different disorders. They have similar prevalences; rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an estimated point prevalence 0.6% [Helmick et al., 2008], whilst schizophrenia (SCZ) has an estimated point prevalence of 0.46% [Saha et al., 2005]. Lifetime prevalence for these disorders is substantially harder to measure, especially RA due to its later age at onset, however estimates for the lifetime prevalence of SCZ are as high as 0.72% [Saha et al., 2005]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies are inconsistent on the relationship between schizophrenia (SCZ) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Several studies have shown that SCZ has a protective effect on RA, with RA occurring less frequently in SCZ cases than would be expected by chance, whilst other studies have failed to replicate this. We sought to test the hypothesis that this effect is due to a protective effect of SCZ risk alleles on RA onset. We first reviewed the literature on the comorbidity of RA and SCZ and performed a meta-analysis. We then used polygenic risk scoring in an RA case control study in order to investigate the contribution of SCZ risk alleles to RA risk. Meta-analysis across studies over the past half-century showed that prevalence of RA in SCZ cases was significantly reduced (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.34-0.67, p < 0.0001). The relationship between SCZ genetic risk and RA status was weak. Polygenic risk of SCZ explained a small (0.1%) and non-significant (p = 0.085) proportion of variance in RA case control status. This relationship was nominally positive, with RA cases carrying more SCZ risk alleles than controls. The current findings do not support the assertion that the relationship between RA and SCZ is explained by genetic factors, which appear to have little or no effect. The protective effect of SCZ on RA may be due to environmental factors, such as an anti-inflammatory effect of anti-psychotic medication or merely due to confounding limitations in study designs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 02/2015; 168(2). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32282 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease that is characterized by pain, joint stiffness/swelling, fatigue, and subsequent functional limitations and disability (Taibi & Bourguignon, 2003). The average age of persons with RA and the proportion of older adults with RA have increased over time due to longevity and disease chronicity (Helmick et al., 2008). This suggests that RA-related adverse effects on functional status, health care costs, morbidity/mortality, and psychological well-being may increase as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: To evolve a management plan for rheumatoid arthritis, it is necessary to understand the patient's symptom experience and disablement process. This paper aims to introduce and critique two models as a conceptual foundation from which to construct a new model for arthritis care. A Disability Intervention Model for Older Adults with Arthritis includes three interrelated concepts of symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and symptom outcomes that correspond to the Theory of Symptom Management. These main concepts influence or are influenced by contextual factors that are situated within the domains of person, environment, and health/illness. It accepts the bidirectional, complex, dynamic interactions among all components within the model representing the comprehensive aspects of the disablement process and its interventions in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis. In spite of some limitations such as confusion or complexity within the model, the Disability Intervention Model for Older Adults with Arthritis has strengths in that it encompasses the majority of the concepts of the two models, attempts to compensate for the limitations of the two models, and aims to understand the impact of rheumatoid arthritis on a patient's physical, cognitive, and emotional health status, socioeconomic status, and well-being. Therefore, it can be utilized as a guiding theoretical framework for arthritis care and research to improve the functional status of older adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Asian Nursing Research 11/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1016/j.anr.2014.08.004 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    • "Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major age-related public health problem resulting in pain, functional limitations, disability, and decreased quality of life. An estimated 27 million people in the United States (US) have OA [1], and nearly half of all Americans are projected to develop knee OA during their lifetime [2]. Based on the US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, associated insurer and out of pocket healthcare costs account for more than $185 billion per year with another $10 billion lost from absenteeism at work [3, 4]. "
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