Decorin enhances the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells through suppressing myostatin activity.
ABSTRACT Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Our recent study has shown that immobilized decorin in the collagen matrix sequesters myostatin into the extracellular matrix and prevents its inhibitory action to myoblast proliferation in vitro. However, it still remains unclear whether free decorin could affect the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells by regulating myostatin activity. In the present study, we generated stable clonal C2C12 myoblasts that were over-expressing decorin, and showed that decorin over-expressing cells had an increased rate of proliferation as compared to control cells. Decorin over-expressing cells formed multi-giant hypertrophic myotubes with an elongated morphology and larger size as compared to control cells, although the initiation of differentiation in decorin over-expressing cells was somewhat delayed as compared to control cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that MyoD expression in decorin over-expressing cells was lower than that in control cells until 12 h after induction to differentiate. At 48-h differentiation, the expressions of MyoD, p21 and myogenin were dramatically increased in cells that over-expressed decorin. Furthermore, we revealed that over-expression of decorin suppressed the activity of myostatin endogenously synthesized in C2C12 myoblasts and attenuated the signaling of exogenous myostatin. Consistent with these results, knock-down of decorin impairs C2C12 myoblast growth by increasing the sensitivity to exogenous myostatin. These results clearly show that decorin enhances the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts through suppressing myostatin activity.
Article: Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO) resistant (SWR/J) and susceptible (C57BL/6) mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ) potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+)/CD44(hi) and CD8(+)/CD44(hi) cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12928. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Endothelium-derived Netrin-4 supports pancreatic epithelial cell adhesion and differentiation through integrins α2β1 and α3β1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Netrins have been extensively studied in the developing central nervous system as pathfinding guidance cues, and more recently in non-neural tissues where they mediate cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. Netrin-4, a distant relative of Netrins 1-3, has been proposed to affect cell fate determination in developing epithelia, though receptors mediating these functions have yet to be identified. Using human embryonic pancreatic cells as a model of developing epithelium, here we report that Netrin-4 is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and pancreatic ductal cells, and supports epithelial cell adhesion through integrins α2β1 and α3β1. Interestingly, we find that Netrin-4 recognition by embryonic pancreatic cells through integrins α2β1 and α3β1 promotes insulin and glucagon gene expression. In addition, full genome microarray analysis revealed that fetal pancreatic cell adhesion to Netrin-4 causes a prominent down-regulation of cyclins and up-regulation of negative regulators of the cell cycle. Consistent with these results, a number of other genes whose activities have been linked to developmental decisions and/or cellular differentiation are up-regulated. Given the recognized function of blood vessels in epithelial tissue morphogenesis, our results provide a mechanism by which endothelial-derived Netrin-4 may function as a pro-differentiation cue for adjacent developing pancreatic cell populations expressing adhesion receptors α2β1 and α3β1 integrins.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22750. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. These patients are unable to separate the nasal from the oral cavity leading to air loss during speech. Although surgical repair ameliorates soft palate function by joining the clefted muscles of the soft palate, optimal function is often not achieved. The regeneration of muscles in the soft palate after surgery is hampered because of (1) their low intrinsic regenerative capacity, (2) the muscle properties related to clefting, and (3) the development of fibrosis. Adjuvant strategies based on tissue engineering may improve the outcome after surgery by approaching these specific issues. Therefore, this review will discuss myogenesis in the noncleft and cleft palate, the characteristics of soft palate muscles, and the process of muscle regeneration. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 06/2012; · 4.64 Impact Factor