Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).
ABSTRACT Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.
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ABSTRACT: Nature always stands as a golden mark to exemplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. The history of herbal medicines is as old as human civilization. Many herbal remedies have been employed in various medicinal systems for the treatment and management of different ailments. Euphorbia nivulia Buch. – Ham. a member of Euphorbiaceae family is a wild, thorny, xerophytic, succulent plant, commonly used in fencing of the agricultural field and also in dry barren areas. It has different biological activities for the treatment of several ailments of human being. It possesses antimicrobial, wound healing, haemostatic, larvicidal, insecticidal, nematicidal and cytotoxic activity. Chemically, it contains terpenes, glycoproteins, phytoelements and phytochemicals. This article provides informative data on ethnobotanical importance and bioprospecting of Euphorbia nivulia Buch. - Ham.International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 01/2011; 2(2):37-42.
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ABSTRACT: The larvicidal, behavioral, and morphological response of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti treated with deleterious weed, Argemone mexicana, was explored. The 1,000 ppm extracts of A. mexicana leaf, stem, and roots prepared in five different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, benzene, acetone, and ethanol) were screened for their larvicidal activity against dengue vector establishing the efficacy of petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Other extracts, unable to give 100 % mortality, were considered ineffective and discarded from further study. Larvicidal bioassay conducted with selected extracts confirmed the higher efficacy of hexane extracts exhibiting 1.1- to 1.8-fold more potential than the petroleum ether extracts. The results further revealed 1.6- to 2.4-fold higher efficacy of root extracts than those prepared from the leaves and stem of A. mexicana. The hexane root extract of A. mexicana was found to be the most effective larvicide with LC50 value of 91.331 ppm after 24 h of exposure causing 1.8 and 2.4 fold more toxicity as compared to the hexane leaf and stem extracts, respectively. Prolonged exposure of the larvae to the extracts resulted in increased toxicity potential of the extracts. Observations of the treated larvae revealed excitation, violent vertical, and horizontal movements with aggressive anal biting behavior suggesting effect of extracts on their neuromuscular system. Morphological studies of the treated larvae revealed the demelanization of cuticle and shrinkage of internal cuticle of anal papillae indicating the anal papillae as the probable action sites of the A. mexicana extracts. The potential of A. mexicana as new larvicides against dengue vector are being explored.Parasitology Research 07/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. Eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activities were tested for activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. About 61% of the eighteen extracts demonstrated high to moderate larvicidal activity. Extracts of Piper nigrum and Abrus precatorius seeds were the most active and the larvicidal constituent(s) of the latter should be determined.Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 01/2014; 19(6):8363-8372.