Adverse drug events (ADEs), particularly those involving intravenous medications (IV-ADEs), are common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may increase hospitalization costs. Precise cost estimates have not been reported for academic ICUs, and no studies have included nonacademic ICUs.
To estimate increases in costs and length of stay after IV-ADEs at an academic and a nonacademic hospital.
This study reviewed medical records to identify IV-ADEs, and then, using a nested case-control design with propensity-score matching, assessed differences in costs and length of stay between cases and controls.
: A total of 4604 adult ICU patients in 3 ICUs at an academic hospital and 2 ICUs at a nonacademic hospital in 2003 and 2004.
Increased cost and length of stay associated with IV-ADEs.
: Three hundred ninety-seven IV-ADEs were identified: 79% temporary physical injuries, 0% permanent physical injuries, 20% interventions to sustain life, and 2% in-hospital deaths. In the academic ICUs, patients with IV-ADEs had $6647 greater costs (P < 0.0001) and 4.8-day longer stays (P = 0.0003) compared with controls. In the nonacademic ICUs, IV-ADEs were not associated with greater costs ($188, P = 0.4236) or lengths of stay (-0.3 days, P = 0.8016). Cost and length-of-stay differences between the hospitals were statistically significant (P = 0.0012). However, there were no differences in IV-ADE severity or preventability, and the characteristics of patients experiencing IV-ADEs differed only modestly.
IV-ADEs substantially increased hospitalization costs and length of stay in ICUs at an academic hospital but not at a nonacademic hospital, likely because of differences in practices after IV-ADEs occurred.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MEDICATION SAFETY Overlooked Renal Dosage Adjustments A retrospective analysis of 647 patients at hospital discharge com-pared required renal dosage adjust-ments to dosage actually prescribed. This study was conducted at VieCuri Medical Centre in Venlo, Netherlands. Patient demographics and renal function data were col-lected, and dosage adjustment needs were assessed via the pharmacy-supported discharge counseling ser-vice. The incidence of inappropriate dosing based on renal function was measured at hospital discharge. Thirty-seven percent of patients evaluated during the study period (237/647) had a creatinine clear-ance less than 51 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; dosage adjustment was warranted in 23.9% (411/1,718) of prescrip-tions. When dosage adjustment should have been performed, more than 40% of prescriptions (169/411; 41.1%) were inappropri-ate for renal function (9.8% of pre-scriptions overall; 169/1,718). Fur-thermore, 60.4% (102/169) of inappropriate prescriptions pos-sessed the potential for moderate or severe clinical consequences, as evaluated by a panel of two clinical pharmacologists and one nephrolo-gist. Study authors also noted a lack of standardized dosing guidelines for agents requiring renal dosage adjustment. The authors also sug-gested that augmenting medication systems by adding dynamic renal dosing alerts would improve moni-toring. Summary: A comparison of suggested renal dosing and actual dosing at hospital discharge revealed that appropriate prescribing may be overlooked. van Dijk EA, Drabbe NRG, Kruijtbosch M, De Smet PAGM. Drug dosage adjust-ments according to renal function at hos-pital discharge. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1254-1260.
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