Collective and individual functions of leptin receptor modulated neurons controlling metabolism and ingestion
ABSTRACT Two known types of leptin-responsive neurons reside within the arcuate nucleus: the agouti gene-related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron. By deleting the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) specifically in AgRP/NPY and/or POMC neurons of mice, we examined the several and combined contributions of these neurons to leptin action. Body weight and adiposity were increased by Lepr deletion from AgRP and POMC neurons individually, and simultaneous deletion in both neurons (A+P LEPR-KO mice) further increased these measures. Young (periweaning) A+P LEPR-KO mice exhibit hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure, with increased weight gain, oxidative sparing of triglycerides, and increased fat accumulation. Interestingly, however, many of these abnormalities were attenuated in adult animals, and high doses of leptin partially suppress food intake in the A+P LEPR-KO mice. Although mildly hyperinsulinemic, the A+P LEPR-KO mice displayed normal glucose tolerance and fertility. Thus, AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons each play mandatory roles in aspects of leptin-regulated energy homeostasis, high leptin levels in adult mice mitigate the importance of leptin-responsiveness in these neurons for components of energy balance, suggesting the presence of other leptin-regulated pathways that partially compensate for the lack of leptin action on the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons.
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ABSTRACT: Studies have shown a gradual reduction of sleep time in the general population, accompanied by increased food intake, representing a risk for developing obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) exhibit feeding and metabolic alterations, both of which are regulated by the communication between peripheral signals and the hypothalamus. This study aimed to investigate the daily change of 96 h of PSD-induced food intake, body weight, blood glucose, plasma insulin and leptin concentrations and the expression of their receptors in the hypothalamus of Wistar rats. Food intake was assessed during the light and dark phases and was progressively increased in sleep-deprived animals, during the light phase. PSD produced body weight loss, particularly on the first day, and decreased plasma insulin and leptin levels, without change in blood glucose levels. Reduced leptin levels were compensated by increased expression of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus, whereas no compensations occurred in insulin receptors. The present results on body weight loss and increased food intake replicate previous studies from our group. The fact that reduced insulin levels did not lead to compensatory changes in hypothalamic insulin receptors, suggests that this hormone may be, at least in part, responsible for PSD-induced dysregulation in energy metabolism.Hormones and Behavior 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.08.015 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leptin is a critical regulator of metabolism, which acts on brain receptors (Lepr) to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure. Some of the cellular pathways mediating leptin's anorectic actions are identified, but those mediating the thermogenic effects have proven more difficult to decipher. We define a population of neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) containing the RFamide PrRP, which is activated by leptin. Disruption of Lepr selectively in these cells blocks thermogenic responses to leptin and causes obesity. A separate population of leptin-insensitive PrRP neurons in the brainstem is required, instead, for the satiating actions of the gut-derived hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). Global deletion of PrRP (in a loxSTOPlox-PrRP mouse) results in obesity and attenuated responses to leptin and CCK. Cre-recombinase-mediated reactivation of PrRP in brainstem rescues the anorectic actions of CCK, but reactivation in the hypothalamus is required to re-establish the thermogenic effect of leptin.Cell Metabolism 08/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.022 · 16.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Receptors of leptin, the prototypical adipokine, are expressed throughout the cortex and several other areas of the brain. Although typically studied for its role in energy intake and expenditure, leptin plays a critical role in many other neurocognitive processes and interacts with various other hormones and neurotransmitters to perform these functions. Here, we review the literature on how leptin influences brain development, neural degradation, Alzheimer’s disease, psychiatric disorders, and more complicated cognitive functioning and feeding behaviors. We also discuss modulators of leptin and the leptin receptor as they relate to normal cognitive functioning and may mediate some of the actions of leptin in the brain. Although we are beginning to better understand the critical role leptin plays in normal cognitive functioning, there is much to be discovered.Metabolism 07/2014; 64(1). DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.07.004 · 3.61 Impact Factor