Article

Inhibitory control and emotional stress regulation: neuroimaging evidence for frontal-limbic dysfunction in psycho-stimulant addiction.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center S103, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 10.28). 02/2008; 32(3):581-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review focuses on neuroimaging studies that examined stress processing and regulation and cognitive inhibitory control in patients with psycho-stimulant addiction. We provide an overview of these studies, summarizing converging evidence and discrepancies as they occur in the literature. We also adopt an analytic perspective and dissect these psychological processes into their sub-components, to identify the neural pathways specific to each component process and those that are more specifically involved in psycho-stimulant addiction. To this aim we refer frequently to studies conducted in healthy individuals. Despite the separate treatment of stress/affect regulation, stress-related craving or compulsive drug seeking, and inhibitory control, neural underpinnings of these processes overlap significantly. In particular, the ventromedial prefrontal regions including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and the striatum are implicated in psychostimulant dependence. Our overarching thesis is that prefrontal activity ensures intact emotional stress regulation and inhibitory control. Altered prefrontal activity along with heightened striatal responses to addicted drug and drug-related salient stimuli perpetuates habitual drug seeking. Further studies that examine the functional relationships of these neural systems will likely provide the key to understanding the mechanisms underlying compulsive drug use behaviors in psycho-stimulant dependence.

Full-text

Available from: Chiang-shan Ray Li, Apr 16, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
135 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The default mode network is associated with senior cognitive functions in humans. In this study, we performed independent component analysis of blood oxygenation signals from 14 heroin users and 13 matched normal controls in the resting state through functional MRI scans. Results showed that the default mode network was significantly activated in the prefrontal lobe, posterior cingulated cortex and hippocampus of heroin users, and an enhanced activation signal was observed in the right inferior parietal lobule (P < 0.05, corrected for false discovery rate). Experimental findings indicate that the default mode network is altered in heroin users.
    Neural Regeneration Research 06/2012; 7(18):1386-91. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.18.004 · 0.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emotion regulation, defined as the capacity to influence one's experience and expression of emotion, is a complex skill now recognized to evolve throughout the lifetime. Here we examine the role of emotion regulation in parenthood, and propose that regulatory function during this period is distinct from the emotion regulation skills acquired and implemented during other periods of life. In this review, we consider the unique demands of caring for a child and recognize that parents have to maintain a regulated state as well as facilitate regulation in their child, especially early in development. We examine neurobiological, hormonal and behavioral shifts during the transition to parenthood that may facilitate parental regulation in response to infant cues. Furthermore, we consider how parents shape emotion regulation in their child, and the clinical implications of regulatory functioning within the parent–child relationship.
    Developmental Review 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.008 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been posited that self-regulation of behaviors, emotions, and temptations may all rely on a common resource. Recent reviews suggest this common resource may include the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). However, to our knowledge no single functional neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis. We obtained fMRI scans as 25 abstinent treatment-seeking cigarette smokers completed motor, affective, and craving self-control tasks before smoking cessation treatment. We identified two regions in left IFC and a region in pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) that were commonly activated in all three tasks. Further, PPI analyses suggest that IFC may involve dissociable pathways in each self-control domain. Specifically, the IFC showed negative functional connectivity with large portions of the thalamus and precentral gyrus during motor stopping, with the insula and other portions of the thalamus during craving regulation, and potentially with a small limbic region during emotion regulation. We discuss implications for understanding self-control mechanisms.
    09/2014; 2(5):611-619. DOI:10.1177/2167702614522037