Endotoxemia increases the clearance of mPEGylated 5000-MW quantum dots as revealed by multiphoton microvascular imaging.
ABSTRACT Imaging the microcirculation is becoming increasingly important in assessing life-threatening disease states. To address this issue in a highly light absorbing and light scattering tissue, we use laser scanning multiphoton microscopy and fluorescent 655-nm 5000-MW methoxy-PEGylated quantum dots to image the functional microcirculation deep in mouse hind limb skeletal muscle. Using this approach, we are able to minimize in vivo background tissue autofluorescence and visualize complete 3-D microvascular units, including feeding arterioles, capillary networks, and collecting venules to depths of 150 to 200 microm. In CD1 mice treated with lipopolysaccharide to model an endotoxemic response to bacterial infection, we find that these quantum dots accumulate at microvascular bifurcations and extravasate from the microcirculation in addition to accumulating in organs (liver, spleen, lung, and kidney). The quantum dots are cleared from the circulation with a first-order elimination rate constant seven times greater than under normal conditions, 1.6+/-0.06 compared to 0.23+/-0.05 h(-1), P<0.05, thereby reducing the imaging time window. In vitro experiments using TNFalpha treated isolated leukocytes suggest that circulating monocytes (phagocytes) increased their nonspecific uptake of quantum dots when activated. In combination with multiphoton microscopy, quantum dots provide excellent in vivo imaging contrast of deep microvascular structures.
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ABSTRACT: Altered fibrin clot architecture is increasingly associated with cardiovascular diseases; yet, little is known about how fibrin networks are affected by small molecules that alter fibrinogen structure. Based on previous evidence that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) alters fibrinogen secondary structure and fibrin polymerization kinetics, we hypothesized that GSNO would alter fibrin microstructure. Accordingly, we treated human platelet-poor plasma with GSNO (0.01-3.75 mM) and imaged thrombin induced fibrin networks using multiphoton microscopy. Using custom designed computer software, we analyzed fibrin microstructure for changes in structural features including fiber density, diameter, branch point density, crossing fibers and void area. We report for the first time that GSNO dose-dependently decreased fibrin density until complete network inhibition was achieved. At low dose GSNO, fiber diameter increased 25%, maintaining clot void volume at approximately 70%. However, at high dose GSNO, abnormal irregularly shaped fibrin clusters with high fluorescence intensity cores were detected and clot void volume increased dramatically. Notwithstanding fibrin clusters, the clot remained stable, as fiber branching was insensitive to GSNO and there was no evidence of fiber motion within the network. Moreover, at the highest GSNO dose tested, we observed for the first time, that GSNO induced formation of fibrin agglomerates. Taken together, low dose GSNO modulated fibrin microstructure generating coarse fibrin networks with thicker fibers; however, higher doses of GSNO induced abnormal fibrin structures and fibrin agglomerates. Since GSNO maintained clot void volume, while altering fiber diameter it suggests that GSNO may modulate the remodeling or inhibition of fibrin networks over an optimal concentration range.PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43660. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043660 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: The role of the hypovolemic component secondary to the microcirculatory changes in the onset of inaugural anaphylactic hypotension remains debated. We investigated the microcirculatory permeability in a model of anaphylactic shock using a fluorescence confocal microscopy imaging system. METHODS:: Ovalbumin-sensitized anesthetized Brown Norway rats were randomly allocated into two groups (n = 6/group): control and anaphylaxis, respectively induced by intravenous saline or ovalbumin at time 0 (T0). The mesentery was surgically exposed. Macromolecular fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was intravenously injected (T0-5min) allowing in vivo visualization of the mesenteric microvascular network by fluorescence microscopy. After a period of stabilization of the contrast agent concentration, a 5-s movie was recorded to obtain baseline signal intensity. Following T0, 5-s movies were recorded every 30 s for 30 min. Capillary leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was assessed in interstitium and compared between groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS:: Following anaphylactic shock onset, an early, progressive, and global signal intensity increase over time was detected in the interstitium. Mean index leakage differed between control and anaphylaxis (respectively 20 ± 11 vs. 170 ± 127%; P < 0.0001), starting at 2 min after shock onset and progressively increasing. Index leakage correlated with the drop in arterial blood pressure until T0 + 10 min (r = -0.75, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:: During anaphylaxis, interstitial capillary leakage occurs within minutes after shock onset. Compared with controls, the mesenteric microcirculation showed at least 8-fold-increased macromolecular capillary leakage. The inflammation-induced microcirculatory changes with subsequent intravascular fluid transfer might be involved in the onset of the inaugural hypotension during anaphylactic shock.Anesthesiology 08/2012; 117(5):1072-1079. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31826d3dc5 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection.Biosensors & Bioelectronics 07/2013; 51C:62-75. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2013.07.020 · 6.45 Impact Factor