By using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured the changes in the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb, respectively) concentrations while performing visual tasks. We conducted experiments using two tasks: a shape recognition task and a position recognition task. It was found that the oxy-Hb concentration was substantially higher in the lateral occipital regions during shape recognition than during position recognition. The changes in the oxy-Hb concentration were considered to reflect the activation difference between the two tasks. No difference was observed in the oxy-Hb concentration during the memorization of shape and memorization of position. The deoxy-Hb concentration was different between the two tasks only when different stimuli were used but not when identical stimuli were used. In addition, it was suggested that the deoxy-Hb concentration is more sensitive to activation difference between the hemispheres and the activation at some regions. Measurements of the oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb concentrations would reflect different aspects of cortical activations. The present results showed that measuring the oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb concentrations separately can differentiate the activation of the regional cortical functions.
"We propose a measurement method for user inter-operability by measuring brain activity via brain-imaging devices to determine the robot design parameters that provide intuitive operability. In several reports, brain-imaging devices have been used to study user inter-operability  . We consider brain-imaging devices to be the only means of evaluating user inter-operability in terms of intuitive operability. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical robots have improved considerably in recent years, but intuitive operability, which represents user inter-operability, has not been quantitatively evaluated. Therefore, for design of a robot with intuitive operability, we propose a method to measure brain activity to determine intuitive operability. The objective of this paper is to determine the master configuration against the monitor that allows users to perceive the manipulator as part of their own body. We assume that the master configuration produces an immersive reality experience for the user of putting his own arm into the monitor. In our experiments, as subjects controlled the hand controller to position the tip of the virtual slave manipulator on a target in a surgical simulator, we measured brain activity through brain-imaging devices. We performed our experiments for a variety of master manipulator configurations with the monitor position fixed. For all test subjects, we found that brain activity was stimulated significantly when the master manipulator was located behind the monitor. We conclude that this master configuration produces immersive reality through the body image, which is related to visual and somatic sense feedback.
the 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 08/2012
"Since Jöbsis (1977) showed the availability of monitoring hemoglobin concentration change as an index of a cerebral activation, researchers have been trying to map the regional brain activity using NIRS (e.g.Watanabe et al., 1996). Recently, many attempts have been made to measure various brain functions with this technique, such as language recognition (Pena, 2003), visual perception (Taga, Asakawa, Maki, Konishi & Koizumi 2001; Maehara, Taya & Kojima, 2007), visuo-spatial identification task (Herrmann, Ehlis, Wagener, Jacob & Fallgatter, 2005), proprioceptive feedbacks (Shimada, Hiraki & Oda, 2005), arithmetic tasks (Hoshi & Tamura, 1993), and recognition of cooperative actions (Shibata, Suzuki & Gyoba, 2007). However, most of the tasks used in these studies involved a factor of attention in combination with the task load itself. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the changes in regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) around visual cortex using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) when observers attended to visual scenes. The oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb and Deoxy-Hb) concentration changes at occipital lobe were monitored during a dual task. Observers were asked to name a digit superimposed on a scenery picture, while in parallel, they had to detect an on-and-off flickering object in a Change Blindness paradigm. Results showed the typical activation patterns in and around the visual cortex with increases in Oxy-Hb and decreases in Deoxy-Hb. The Oxy-Hb increase doubled when observers could not find the target, as opposed to trials in which they could. The results strongly suggest that active attention to a visual scene enhances Oxy-Hb change much stronger than passive watching, and that attention and Oxy-Hb increases are possibly correlated.
"It thus allows the monitoring of human cortical activity in a variety of experimental tasks, such as those requiring body movement . OT is a relatively new brain imaging technique that measures relative change in hemoglobin concentration  and separately measures changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical robots have undergone considerable improve-ment in recent years. But intuitive operability, which represents user interoperability, has not been quanti-tatively evaluated. With the aim of designing a robot with intuitive operability, we thus propose a method for measuring brain activity to determine intuitive op-erability. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the master configuration against the position of the mon-itor that best allows user to perceive the manipulator as part of his own body. We assume that the master configuration provides immersive reality to user as if he puts own arm into the monitor. In our experiments, subjects controlled the hand controller to position the tip of the virtual slave manipulator on a target in the surgical simulator and we measured brain activity us-ing brain imaging devices. We carried out experiments a number of times with the master manipulator config-ured in a variety of ways and the position of the mon-itor fixed. We found that the brain was significantly activated in all subjects when the master manipulator was located behind the monitor. We concluded that the master configuration produces immersive reality through body images related to visual and somatic sen-sory feedback.
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