The objective of this multicenter, international study was to evaluate safety and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets in elderly (age > or =65 years) patients with schizophrenia. The authors conducted a 6-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, optional 24-week open-label extension study. Interventions consisted of flexible, once-daily doses of paliperidone ER (3-12 mg/day; 6-mg starting dose, adjusted in 3-mg dose increments) or placebo (2:1) during double-blind treatment and paliperidone ER only during open-label treatment. Measurements included adverse events, laboratory tests, physical examinations, 12-lead electrocardiograms, movement disorder rating scales, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression scale. The study was not powered to show statistical differences.
Patients (N = 114) were predominantly female (73%); mean age was 70 years (double-blind phase). Concomitant disease presence was consistent with that of an older population. During the double-blind phase, discontinuation rates resulting from adverse events were similar between groups (paliperidone ER: 7%, placebo: 8%) as were incidences of treatment-emergent adverse events (paliperidone ER: 67%, placebo: 71%). Serious adverse events occurred in 3% of the paliperidone ER- and 8% of the placebo-treated patients. Elevated prolactin levels occurred in approximately one half of patients. No prolactin- or glucose treatment-related adverse events or noteworthy mean changes in body weight (0 kg [standard deviation: 2.1] and 0 kg [standard deviation: 2.3] for paliperidone ER and placebo, respectively) were observed. Safety and tolerability results in the extension were consistent with the shorter-term results. Efficacy measures did not show consistent statistical improvement between treatment groups.
Paliperidone ER (3-12 mg/day) treatment over a 30-week period was generally well-tolerated and may improve symptom severity in elderly patients with schizophrenia.
"Although the incidence of EPS-related AEs was higher in paliperidone ER-treated patients, primarily those receiving higher doses, the severity of EPS was very low throughout the study . Therefore, no safety concerns were raised in this study . In this study, short-term treatment with paliperidone ER significantly improved psychiatric symptoms and functioning, with no unexpected safety or tolerability findings. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore relations between symptomatic remission and functionality evaluation in schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone extended-release (ER), as seen in a normal day-to-day practice, using flexible dosing regimens of paliperidone ER. We explored symptomatic remission rate in patients treated with flexibly dosed paliperidone ER by 8 items of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and change of Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale.
This was a 12-week multicenter, open-label, prospective clinical study conducted in in-patient and out-patient populations. Flexible dosing in the range 3-12 mg/day was used throughout the study. All subjects attended clinic visits on weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 as usual clinical practice for the 12-week observation period. Data were summarized with respect to demographic and baseline characteristics, efficacy measurement with PANSS scale, PSP, and social functioning score, and safety observations. Descriptive statistics were performed to identify the retention rate at each visit as well as the symptomatic remission rate. Summary statistics of average doses the subjects received were based on all subjects participating in the study.
A total of 480 patients were enrolled. Among them, 426 patients (88.8%) had evaluation at week 4 and 350 (72.9%) completed the 12-week evaluation. Patients with at least moderate severity of schizophrenia were evaluated as "mild" or better on PANSS scale by all 8 items after 12 weeks of treatment with paliperidone ER. There was significant improvement in patients' functionality as measured by PSP improvement and score changes. Concerning the other efficacy parameters, PANSS total scale, PSP total scale, and social functioning total scale at the end of study all indicated statistically significant improvement by comparison with baseline. The safety profile also demonstrated that paliperidone ER was well-tolerated without clinically significant changes after treatment administration.
Although the short-term nature of this study may limit the potential for assessing improvements in function, it is noteworthy that in the present short-term study significant improvements in patient personal and social functioning with paliperidone ER treatment were observed, as assessed by PSP scale.
Clinical Trials. PAL-TWN-MA3.
"Usually, doses of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia were higher, and some authors retained that hyperprolactinemia induced by paliperidone was dose related [21, 67]. The pattern of side effects in our sample was generally concordant with investigations of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia [15, 27, 29, 67–69]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were treated for 12 weeks with paliperidone ER (3-6 mg/day). They were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12, using the CGI-Severity item, the BPRS, the HDRS, the HARS, the SOFAS, the BPD Severity Index (BPDSI), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Adverse events were evaluated with the DOTES. Paliperidone ER was shown to be effective and well tolerated in reducing severity of global symptomatology and specific BPD symptoms, such as impulsive dyscontrol, anger, and cognitive-perceptual disturbances. Results need to be replicated in controlled trials.
Depression research and treatment 08/2011; 2011:680194. DOI:10.1155/2011/680194
"In elderly patients, the incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms was low throughout the double-blind and open-label study phases.59 Extrapyramidal disorders occurred more often in the placebo group during the double-blind phase, but akathisia rates were identical for PER and placebo at 3%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone), the active metabolite of risperidone, was approved for treating schizophrenia worldwide in 2006 as paliperidone extended-release (PER), and became the first second-generation antipsychotic specifically licensed for treating schizoaffective disorder in 2009. However, at the same time, its comparatively high cost gave rise to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of PER as compared with its precursor, risperidone. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the pharmacology, kinetics, efficacy, tolerability, and fields of application of PER, and compares PER with risperidone in order to determine whether it has a place in antipsychotic therapy. An independent assessment of all relevant publications on PER published until July 2010 was undertaken. PER has a unique pharmacological profile, including single dosing, predominantly renal excretion, low drug-drug interaction risk, and differs from risperidone in terms of mode of action and pharmacokinetics. High-level evidence suggests that PER is efficacious and safe in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and acute manic episodes. There is a striking lack of published head-to-head comparisons between PER and risperidone, irrespective of indication. Low-level evidence shows a lower risk for hyperprolactinemia and higher patient satisfaction with PER than with risperidone. PER adds to the still limited arsenal of second-generation antipsychotics. In the absence of direct comparisons with risperidone, it remains difficult to come to a final verdict on the potential additional therapeutic benefits of PER which would justify its substantially higher costs as compared with risperidone. However, in terms of pharmacology, the available evidence cautiously suggests a place for PER in modern antipsychotic therapy.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 03/2011; 5(5):125-46. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S17266 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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