Article

Estrogen effects of Daldinia concentrica and Psathyrella efflorescens extracts in vitro.

Université de Cocody, U.F.R Biosciences, Laboratoire d'Endocrinologie et de Biologie de la Reproduction, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire, France.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.94). 03/2008; 116(1):152-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Daldinia concentrica and Psathyrella efflorescens are two fungi used in African traditional medicine. In the present study, their extracts were evaluated for their steroid activities in estrogen- or androgen-dependent cell lines using as endpoints steroid-dependent transcriptional activity and cell proliferation. Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with 15 or 30 microg/ml of Daldinia concentrica or Psathyrellaefflorescens extracts in the absence of 17beta-estradiol (E2) significantly increased the transcriptional activity of an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent reporter gene, in the same range as E2. Similar data were obtained in gonadotrope cell line alpha-T3-1. All the effects were prevented by the pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780. In the absence of steroid addition, the two extracts induced cell proliferation of ER-dependent MCF-7 and Ishikawa Var-I cell lines by approximately 100% of the E2 response. Combination treatments with E2 showed no competitive or additive effects in the two latter cell lines. Interestingly, the extracts had no androgen-like response in androgen receptor (AR)-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB231 cells, suggesting that fungi effects are estrogen specific and extracts are not toxic at used concentrations. Results provided evidence that Daldinia concentrica or Psathyrellaefflorescens extracts induce estrogen-like effects in ER-positive cell lines, which could be responsible of the effects observed in vivo.

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    ABSTRACT: For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future. A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data. Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future. A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data. Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov.Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov.
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