Does long-term unilateral deafness change auditory evoked potential asymmetries?
ABSTRACT To investigate the long-term cortical changes in auditory evoked potential (AEP) asymmetries associated with profound unilateral deafness.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 68 channels were used to measure auditory cortex responses to monaural stimulation from 7 unilaterally deaf patients and 7 audiogram-matched controls. Source localization of the AEP N100 response was carried out and regional source waveform amplitude and latency asymmetries were analysed for activity in the N100 latency range and for the middle latency response (MLR) range.
Asymmetry indices (contralateral-ipsilateral)/(contralateral+ipsilateral) showed that matched control subjects, like normally hearing participants, produced activity in the N100 latency range that was more contralaterally dominant for left compared to right ear stimulation. Contrary to expectation, source waveforms and asymmetry indices in the MLR and N100 latency range were similar for unilaterally deaf patients, their matched controls and a group of normally hearing participants.
Regional source waveform analysis revealed no evidence of systematic cortical changes in hemispheric asymmetries associated with long-term unilateral deafness. It is possible that a reorganization of cortical asymmetries to a 'normal' pattern had taken place in the years between deafness and testing.
Electrophysiological measures of auditory hemispheric asymmetries do not suggest long-term cortical reorganisation as a result of profound unilateral deafness.
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ABSTRACT: Change deafness describes the failure to perceive even intense changes within complex auditory input, if the listener does not attend to the changing sound. Remarkably, previous psychophysical data provide evidence that this effect occurs independently of successful stimulus encoding, indicating that undetected changes are processed to some extent in auditory cortex. Here we investigated cortical representations of detected and undetected auditory changes using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and a change deafness paradigm. We applied a one-shot change detection task, in which participants listened successively to three complex auditory scenes, each of them consisting of six simultaneously presented auditory streams. Listeners had to decide whether all scenes were identical or whether the pitch of one stream was changed between the last two presentations. Our data show significantly increased middle-latency Nb responses for both detected and undetected changes as compared to no-change trials. In contrast, only successfully detected changes were associated with a later mismatch response in auditory cortex, followed by increased N2, P3a and P3b responses, originating from hierarchically higher non-sensory brain regions. These results strengthen the view that undetected changes are successfully encoded at sensory level in auditory cortex, but fail to trigger later change-related cortical responses that lead to conscious perception of change.NeuroImage 03/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
- Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 03/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to the deprived ear? We measured multichannel electroencephalography in 34 children using cochlear implants and seven normal hearing peers. Dipole moments of activity became abnormally high in the auditory cortex contralateral to the first implant as unilateral cochlear implant use exceeded 1.5 years. This resulted in increased lateralization of activity to the auditory cortex contralateral to the stimulated ear and a decline in normal contralateral activity in response to stimulation from the newly implanted ear, corresponding to poorer speech perception. These results reflect an abnormal strengthening of pathways from the stimulated ear in consequence to the loss of contralateral activity including inhibitory processes normally involved in bilateral hearing. Although this reorganization occurred within a fairly short period (∼1.5 years of unilateral hearing), it was not reversed by long-term (3-4 years) bilateral cochlear implant stimulation. In bilateral listeners, effects of side of stimulation were assessed; children with long periods of unilateral cochlear implant use prior to bilateral implantation showed a reduction in normal dominance of contralateral input in the auditory cortex ipsilateral to the stimulated ear, further confirming an abnormal strengthening of pathways from the stimulated ear. By contrast, cortical activity in children using bilateral cochlear implants after limited or no unilateral cochlear implant exposure normally lateralized to the hemisphere contralateral to side of stimulation and retained normal contralateral dominance of auditory input in both hemispheres. Results demonstrate that the immature human auditory cortex reorganizes, potentially permanently, with unilateral stimulation and that bilateral auditory input provided with limited delay can protect the brain from such changes. These results indicate for the first time that there is a sensitive period for bilateral auditory input in human development with implications for functional hearing.Brain 04/2013; · 9.92 Impact Factor