Does long-term unilateral deafness change auditory evoked potential asymmetries?
ABSTRACT To investigate the long-term cortical changes in auditory evoked potential (AEP) asymmetries associated with profound unilateral deafness.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 68 channels were used to measure auditory cortex responses to monaural stimulation from 7 unilaterally deaf patients and 7 audiogram-matched controls. Source localization of the AEP N100 response was carried out and regional source waveform amplitude and latency asymmetries were analysed for activity in the N100 latency range and for the middle latency response (MLR) range.
Asymmetry indices (contralateral-ipsilateral)/(contralateral+ipsilateral) showed that matched control subjects, like normally hearing participants, produced activity in the N100 latency range that was more contralaterally dominant for left compared to right ear stimulation. Contrary to expectation, source waveforms and asymmetry indices in the MLR and N100 latency range were similar for unilaterally deaf patients, their matched controls and a group of normally hearing participants.
Regional source waveform analysis revealed no evidence of systematic cortical changes in hemispheric asymmetries associated with long-term unilateral deafness. It is possible that a reorganization of cortical asymmetries to a 'normal' pattern had taken place in the years between deafness and testing.
Electrophysiological measures of auditory hemispheric asymmetries do not suggest long-term cortical reorganisation as a result of profound unilateral deafness.
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ABSTRACT: A number of studies have investigated changes in the perception of visual motion as a result of altered sensory experiences. An animal study has shown that auditory-deprived cats exhibit enhanced performance in a visual movement detection task compared to hearing cats (Lomber, Meredith, & Kral, 2010). In humans, the behavioural evidence regarding the perception of motion is less clear. The present study investigated deaf and hearing adult participants using a movement localization task and a direction of motion task employing coherently-moving and static visual dot patterns. Overall, deaf and hearing participants did not differ in their movement localization performance, although within the deaf group, a left visual field advantage was found. When discriminating the direction of motion, however, deaf participants responded faster and tended to be more accurate when detecting small differences in direction compared with the hearing controls. These results conform to the view that visual abilities are enhanced after auditory deprivation and extend previous findings regarding visual motion processing in deaf individuals.Advances in Cognitive Psychology 06/2013; 9(2):53-61. DOI:10.2478/v10053-008-0131-z
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ABSTRACT: Objective Determine whether auditory cortex (AC) organization changed following eighth cranial nerve surgery in adults with vestibular-cochlear nerve pathologies. We examined whether hearing thresholds before and after surgery correlated with increased ipsilateral activation of AC from the intact ear.Study DesignDuring magnetic resonance imaging sessions before and 3 and 6 months after surgery, subjects listened with the intact ear to noise-like random spectrogram sounds.SettingDepartments of Radiology and Otolaryngology of Washington University School of Medicine.Subjects and Methods Three patients with acoustic neuromas received Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK); 1 patient with Meniere's disease and 5 with acoustic neuromas had surgical resections (SR); 2 of the latter also had GK. Hearing thresholds in each ear were for pure tone stimuli from 250 to 8000 Hz before and after surgery (3 and 6 months). At the same intervals, we imaged blood oxygen level-dependent responses to auditory stimulation of the intact ear using an interrupted single-event design.ResultsHearing thresholds in 2 of 3 individuals treated with GK did not change. Five of 6 individuals became unilaterally deaf after SRs. Ipsilateral AC activity was present before surgery in 6 of 9 individuals with ipsilateral spatial extents greater than contralateral in 3 of 9. Greater contralateral predominance was significant especially in left compared to right ear affected individuals, including those treated by GK.Conclusion Lateralization of auditory-evoked responses in AC did not change significantly after surgery possibly due to preexisting sensory loss before surgery, indicating that less than profound loss may prompt cortical reorganization.Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 06/2013; 149(3). DOI:10.1177/0194599813495179 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to the deprived ear? We measured multichannel electroencephalography in 34 children using cochlear implants and seven normal hearing peers. Dipole moments of activity became abnormally high in the auditory cortex contralateral to the first implant as unilateral cochlear implant use exceeded 1.5 years. This resulted in increased lateralization of activity to the auditory cortex contralateral to the stimulated ear and a decline in normal contralateral activity in response to stimulation from the newly implanted ear, corresponding to poorer speech perception. These results reflect an abnormal strengthening of pathways from the stimulated ear in consequence to the loss of contralateral activity including inhibitory processes normally involved in bilateral hearing. Although this reorganization occurred within a fairly short period (∼1.5 years of unilateral hearing), it was not reversed by long-term (3-4 years) bilateral cochlear implant stimulation. In bilateral listeners, effects of side of stimulation were assessed; children with long periods of unilateral cochlear implant use prior to bilateral implantation showed a reduction in normal dominance of contralateral input in the auditory cortex ipsilateral to the stimulated ear, further confirming an abnormal strengthening of pathways from the stimulated ear. By contrast, cortical activity in children using bilateral cochlear implants after limited or no unilateral cochlear implant exposure normally lateralized to the hemisphere contralateral to side of stimulation and retained normal contralateral dominance of auditory input in both hemispheres. Results demonstrate that the immature human auditory cortex reorganizes, potentially permanently, with unilateral stimulation and that bilateral auditory input provided with limited delay can protect the brain from such changes. These results indicate for the first time that there is a sensitive period for bilateral auditory input in human development with implications for functional hearing.Brain 04/2013; DOI:10.1093/brain/awt052 · 10.23 Impact Factor