Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilize from the bone marrow secondary to a stimulus and home to sites of injury, where they differentiate into endothelial cells and contribute to the repair of damaged vasculature. We hypothesized that growth hormone (GH) administration would increase the number of circulating EPCs in adults and thereby represent a mechanism to enhance vascular health.
A prospective trial of low-dose GH (0.03mg/kg/week for 4 weeks followed by 0.06mg/kg/week for a maximum of four additional weeks) in 10 healthy adults (6 males and 4 females; mean age 37 years, range 26-65). Primary outcomes measured included the number of circulating EPCs as assessed by colony-forming unit (CFU) assay and flow cytometry. Secondary outcomes included plasma measurements of known mediators of EPC mobilization and indices of nitric oxide (NO). Outcomes were measured at baseline and at study completion.
GH administration increased serum IGF-1 (143ng/mL [IQR 121-164] to 222 [IQR 194-244]; P=0.005). The increase in early-outgrowth EPCs (13 CFU per high-power field [IQR 6-24] to 19 [IQR 13-40]; P=0.005) correlated with the peak IGF-1 after adjustment for the baseline number of early-outgrowth EPCs (r=0.719 [95% CI 0.06, 0.93]; P=0.027). The number of late-outgrowth EPCs as well as CD34+, VEGFR2(KDR)+, and AC133+ cells did not significantly change. Other mediators of EPC mobilization were stable while plasma nitrite trended upwards (1.3micromol/L [IQR 0-2.5] to 3.7 [IQR 2.2-8.9]; P=0.052).
GH administration selectively augments the early-outgrowth EPC population in healthy individuals. These findings both support GH replacement in the setting of GH deficiency to maintain vascular integrity and have implications for the use of GH in future regenerative cell-based therapies. Furthermore, the decrease in EPCs observed with aging may in part be explained by the declining somatotropic axis, and thereby contribute to cardiovascular senescence.
"In the future, other clinically-applicable mobilizers may be evaluated. For example, growth hormone, which is used in "antiaging medicine" has been demonstrated to improve endothelial responsiveness in healthy volunteers , and patients with congestive heart failure , this appears to be mediated through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells [148,149]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with major causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as numerous age-related conditions. The possibility of preserving or even rejuvenating endothelial function offers a potent means of preventing/treating some of the most fearful aspects of aging such as loss of mental, cardiovascular, and sexual function.
Endothelial precursor cells (EPC) provide a continual source of replenishment for damaged or senescent blood vessels. In this review we discuss the biological relevance of circulating EPC in a variety of pathologies in order to build the case that these cells act as an endogenous mechanism of regeneration. Factors controlling EPC mobilization, migration, and function, as well as therapeutic interventions based on mobilization of EPC will be reviewed. We conclude by discussing several clinically-relevant approaches to EPC mobilization and provide preliminary data on a food supplement, Stem-Kine, which enhanced EPC mobilization in human subjects.
Journal of Translational Medicine 12/2009; 7(1):106. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-7-106 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to be involved in vascular regeneration and angiogenesis in experimental diabetes. Because insulin therapy mobilizes circulating progenitor cells, we studied the effects of insulin on outgrowth of EPCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes. Insulin increased the formation of EPC colony-forming units in a dose-dependent manner, half-maximal at 1.5 nM and peaking at 15 nM. Inhibiting the insulin receptor with neutralizing antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides had no effect on EPC outgrowth.(1) In contrast, targeting the human insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor with neutralizing antibodies significantly suppressed insulin-induced outgrowth of EPCs from both healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes. This IGF-1 receptor-mediated insulin effect on EPC growth was at least in part dependent on MAP kinases(2) and was abrogated when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and protein kinase 38 (p38) activity was inhibited. To study the functional relevance of the observed insulin effects, we studied EPC-induced tube formation of bovine endothelial cells in vitro. Insulin-stimulated EPCs incorporated into the endothelial tubes and markedly enhanced tube formation. In conclusion, this is the first study showing an insulin-mediated activation of the IGF-1 receptor leading to an increased clonogenic and angiogenic potential of EPCs in vitro.
Molecular Medicine 05/2008; 14(5-6):301-8. DOI:10.2119/2007-00052.Humpert · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is now apparent that regulation of blood vessel growth contributes to the classical actions of hormones on development, growth, and reproduction. Endothelial cells are ideally positioned to respond to hormones, which act in concert with locally produced chemical mediators to regulate their growth, motility, function, and survival. Hormones affect angiogenesis either directly through actions on endothelial cells or indirectly by regulating proangiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor. Importantly, the local microenvironment of endothelial cells can determine the outcome of hormone action on angiogenesis. Members of the growth hormone/prolactin/placental lactogen, the renin-angiotensin, and the kallikrein-kinin systems that exert stimulatory effects on angiogenesis can acquire antiangiogenic properties after undergoing proteolytic cleavage. In view of the opposing effects of hormonal fragments and precursor molecules, the regulation of the proteases responsible for specific protein cleavage represents an efficient mechanism for balancing angiogenesis. This review presents an overview of the actions on angiogenesis of the above-mentioned peptide hormonal families and addresses how specific proteolysis alters the final outcome of these actions in the context of health and disease.
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