Article

The hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine is protective in a murine model of colitis

UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 13.93). 01/2008; 134(1):156-65. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.10.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases are key oxygen-sensing enzymes that confer hypoxic sensitivity to transcriptional regulatory pathways including the hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Knockout of either HIF-1 or (IKKbeta-dependent) NF-kappaB pathways in intestinal epithelial cells promotes inflammatory disease in murine models of colitis. Both HIF-1 and NF-kappaB pathways are repressed by the action of hydroxylases through the hydroxylation of key regulatory molecules.
In this study we have investigated the effects of the hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced model of murine colitis.
DMOG induces both HIF-1 and NF-kappaB activity in cultured intestinal epithelial cells, and is profoundly protective in dextran-sodium sulfate colitis in a manner that is at least in part reflected by the development of an anti-apoptotic phenotype in intestinal epithelial cells, which we propose reduces epithelial barrier dysfunction.
These data show that hydroxylase inhibitors such as DMOG represent a new strategy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

1 Follower
 · 
176 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory diseases in mucosal organs as diverse as the lung, liver and intestine inevitably require the intimate interactions between neutrophils and epithelia. The physiologic consequences of such interactions often determine endpoint organ function, and for this reason, much recent interest has developed in identifying mechanisms and novel targets to promote the resolution of mucosal inflammation. Physiologically-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems have aided in discovery of novel pathways to define basic inflammatory mechanisms and approaches to defining the concepts of inflammatory resolution. Here, we will review the recent literature regarding the contribution of neutrophils to inflammatory resolution, with an emphasis on the role of the tissue microenvironment, endogenous pathways for promoting resolution and the molecular determinants of neutrophil-epithelial cell interactions during ongoing inflammation. These recent studies highlight the dynamic nature of pro-resolving pathways and lend insight into the complexity of treating mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Seminars in Immunology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2015.03.007 · 6.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal mucosa has proven to be an interesting tissue for which to investigate disease-related metabolism. In this review, we outline some evidence that implicates metabolic signaling as important features of barrier in the healthy and disease. Studies from cultured cell systems, animal models and human patients have revealed that metabolites generated within the inflammatory microenvironment are central to barrier regulation. These studies have revealed a prominent role for hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) at key steps in adenine nucleotide metabolism and within the creatine kinase pathway. Results from animal models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated an almost uniformly beneficial influence of HIF stabilization on disease outcomes and barrier function. Studies underway to elucidate the contribution of immune responses will provide additional insight into how metabolic changes contribute to the complexity of the gastrointestinal tract and how such information might be harnessed for therapeutic benefit.
    01/2015; 3(1-2). DOI:10.4161/21688362.2014.970936
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this mini-review, we will discuss recent findings that implicate neutrophil infiltration and function in establishing a metabolic environment to facilitate efficient pathogen clearance. For decades, neutrophils have been regarded as short lived, nonspecific granulocytes, equipped with toxic antimicrobial factors and a respiratory burst generating ROS. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of HIF signaling in leukocytes and surrounding tissues during inflammation. Here, we will review the potential mechanisms and outcomes of HIF stabilization within the intestinal mucosa. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1189/jlb.3MR1114-556R · 4.30 Impact Factor