Systemic fetal inflammation and reduced concentrations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in tracheobronchial aspirate fluid of extremely premature infants.
ABSTRACT Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a proinflammatory mediator of innate immunity, enhances cell growth, and plays a role in preterm delivery. We speculated that funisitis, reflecting fetal systemic inflammation, would be associated with higher concentrations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in airways of extremely premature infants.
We measured macrophage migration inhibitory factor by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in tracheobronchial aspirate fluid of 35 ventilated infants less than 30 weeks' gestational age, throughout the first week of life. Three groups were distinguished histologically: chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and control.
Unexpectedly, funisitis was associated with significantly decreased macrophage migration inhibitory factor in tracheobronchial aspirate fluid on day 1 (P < .01) and levels remained lower than in the chorioamnionitis group thereafter. For the 35 patients in total, macrophage migration inhibitory factor steadily declined.
Decreased macrophage migration inhibitory factor concentrations in airways of extremely premature infants with systemic fetal inflammation early in life might predispose them to pulmonary infection and interfere with maturation of the lung, contributing to adverse pulmonary outcome.
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) activates macrophages, promotes delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in inflammatory response. Serum MIF concentration is high in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Higher MIF levels are associated with high mortality. No study has addressed MIF levels and its role in PTB/HIV-co infection. We determined serum and BAL MIF levels in Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with and without PTB, and correlated the levels with 1-month outcome. We compared with serum MIF levels of HIV seronegative patients with PTB and of healthy controls. All HIV-infected patients irrespective of PTB infection had significantly higher serum MIF levels than HIV-seronegative patients with PTB, and than healthy controls. In HIV seropositive patients low serum MIF levels were associated with high 1-month mortality. In conclusion, HIV infection was associated with elevated serum MIF levels regardless of PTB. Low serum MIF levels were associated with high mortality.Clinical Immunology 05/2007; 123(1):60-5. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged as an important mediator of septic shock. The administration of MIF increases lethality during endotoxemia, whereas neutralization of this cytokine prevents endotoxic shock and death associated with bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a change in the amniotic fluid concentration of MIF in intra-amniotic infection and human parturition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in women in the following categories: (1) mid-trimester (n = 84); (2) preterm labor and intact membranes who delivered at term (n = 33), who delivered preterm (n = 53) and preterm labor with intra-amniotic infection (n = 23); (3) preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) with (n = 25) and without intra-amniotic infection (n = 26); and (4) term with intact membranes, in labor (n = 52) and not in labor (n = 31). MIF concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined using a sensitive and specific immunoassay. MIF concentrations in maternal plasma were also determined in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Immunohistochemistry was conducted in chorioamniotic membranes obtained from a different set of patients presenting with preterm labor with (n = 18) and without (n = 20) histologic chorioamnionitis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure MIF mRNA expression in chorioamniotic membranes of patients with preterm labor with (n = 13) and without (n = 13) histologic chorioamnionitis. Parametric and non-parametric, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, survival analysis, and Cox regression model were used for analysis. Immunoreactive MIF was detectable in 96% (313/327) of amniotic fluid samples. The concentration of amniotic fluid MIF at term was higher than that in the mid-trimester (p = 0.004). Intra-amniotic infection in women with preterm labor and preterm PROM was associated with a significant increase in median amniotic fluid MIF concentration (p < 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Patients with preterm labor with sterile amniotic fluid who delivered preterm had a significantly higher median amniotic fluid MIF concentration than those who delivered at term (p = 0.007). Among patients with preterm labor with intact membranes, survival analysis indicated that the median amniocentesis-to-delivery interval was significantly shorter in patients whose amniotic fluid concentrations of MIF were above 302 ng/ml than those below this cutoff value (p < 0.001). Human parturition at term was not associated with changes in the amniotic fluid MIF concentrations (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in median maternal plasma MIF concentrations among patients with preterm labor and intact membranes who delivered at term, those who delivered preterm, and those who had intra-amniotic infection (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MIF protein was present in amniotic epithelial cells, and the mean percentage of immunoreactive MIF-staining cells was higher in patients with histologic chorioamnionitis than in those without this lesion (p = 0.03). Similarly, the mean MIF mRNA expression was higher in chorioamniotic membranes obtained from patients with histologic chorioamnionitis than in those without this lesion (p = 0.03). Intra-amniotic infection and preterm parturition, but not term parturition, are associated with a significant increase in amniotic fluid MIF concentrations. Among patients with preterm labor with intact membranes, elevated amniotic fluid concentrations of MIF are associated with intra-amniotic inflammation, histologic chorioamnionitis, and shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval. These changes in amniotic fluid were not reflected in maternal plasma. An increased expression of MIF protein and mRNA in chorioamniotic membranes was observed in patients with histologic choricamnionitis.Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 12/2005; 18(6):405-16. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL6) and suppurating placental inflammation are markers of neonatal sepsis. The purpose of this study was to define a relationship between IL6 and acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis of the placenta, and to compare IL6 levels in term and preterm neonates. Umbilical venous IL6 was measured in 137 term and 110 preterm neonates. Acute chorioamnionitis was graded as none, mild, moderate, severe, and necrotizing. Funisitis was graded as none, 1 vessel, 2 vessels, 3 vessels, or necrotizing. A 2-way analysis of variance with interaction was used to compare the IL6 levels. There was a stepwise progression of IL6 levels with increasing severity of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Term neonates showed an IL6 elevation with mild acute chorioamnionitis and single-vessel vasculitis, which increased progressively until the inflammation became severe. In contrast, IL6 levels in preterm neonates did not increase significantly until severe acute chorioamnionitis or 3-vessel vasculitis was seen. Statistically significant differences in IL6 levels were seen in term versus preterm infants when the acute chorioamnionitis was mild or moderate or when the funisitis involved either 1 or 2 vessels (P < 0.05). The difference may be related to the relative immaturity of the preterm immune system, as has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. However, differences in management could be confounding factors. In conclusion, umbilical venous IL6 levels correlate with the severity of acute placental inflammation, with greater IL6 elevations in term infants compared to preterm infants until the inflammation becomes severe.Human Pathlogy 03/2002; 33(3):335-40. · 2.84 Impact Factor