The Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) pilot study: recruitment, retention, and community care controls.
ABSTRACT Population-based clinical and laboratory studies have reported findings providing support for a possible relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. The Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a randomized secondary prevention trial to test whether treatment of periodontal disease reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease.
Five clinical centers recruited participants who had documented coronary heart disease and met study criteria for periodontal disease. Eligible participants were randomized to receive periodontal therapy provided by the study or community dental care. Follow-up telephone calls and clinic visits were planned to alternate at 3-month intervals after randomization, with all participants followed until at least the 6-month clinic visit. Participants were followed for adverse events and periodontal and cardiovascular outcomes.
A total of 303 participants were randomized. Recruitment that involved active participation of a cardiologist with responsibility for the patients worked best among the strategies used. Of those who had not withdrawn, 93% completed the 6-month contact. During follow-up, 11% of the 152 subjects in the community dental care group reported receiving periodontal therapy outside of the study.
If appropriate recruitment strategies are used, this pilot study demonstrated that it is feasible to conduct a secondary prevention trial of periodontal therapy in patients who have had coronary heart disease. If a community dental care group is used, sample size estimation needs to take into account that a non-trivial proportion of participants in this group may receive periodontal therapy outside of the study.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is associated with stroke and subclinical atherosclerosis, but clinical measurement of CP can be time consuming and invasive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether radiographically assessed CP is associated with nonstenotic carotid artery plaque as an ultrasound measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Panoramic oral radiographs were obtained from 203 stroke-free subjects ages 54 to 94 during the baseline examination of the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST). CP exposure among dentate subjects was defined either categorically (periodontal bone loss > or =50% [severe] versus <50% bone loss) or via tertile formation (for dose-response investigation), with edentulous subjects categorized separately. In all subjects, high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasound was performed. Carotid plaque thickness (CPT) and prevalence (present/absent) were recorded. Covariates included age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among dentate subjects with severe periodontal bone loss, mean CPT was significantly greater (1.20+/-1.00 mm versus 0.73+/-0.89 mm; P=0.003). CPT increased with more severe bone loss (upper versus lower tertile bone loss; P=0.049; adjusted for age, sex, and hypertension). This apparent dose-response effect was more evident among never-smokers. In a fully adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, severe periodontal bone loss was associated with a nearly 4-fold increase in risk for the presence of carotid artery plaque (adjusted odds ratio, 3.64; CI, 1.37 to 9.65). Severe periodontal bone loss is associated independently with carotid atherosclerosis. Panoramic oral radiographs may thus provide an efficient means to assess CP in studies of atherosclerosis risk.Stroke 03/2005; 36(3):561-6. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The association between dental infections and cerebral infarction was investigated in a case-control study involving 40 patients with ischaemic cerebral infarction under the age of 50, and 40 randomly selected community controls matched for sex and age. Poor oral health, as assessed by two indices measuring the severity of infections of teeth and periodontium, or by the presence of subgingival calculus or the presence of suppuration in the gingival pockets, were more common in male patients than in male controls, but no difference was observed in females. If severe dental infections were combined with other probable bacterial infections there were altogether 16 patients (40%) but only two controls (5%) who had suffered from a probable bacterial infection within 1 month or at the time of the stroke or when examined as a control (P less than 0.01). Our results suggest an association between bacterial infection and ischaemic cerebrovascular disease in patients under 50 years of age. Severe chronic dental infection seems to be an important type of infection associated with cerebral infarction in males.Journal of Internal Medicine 04/1989; 225(3):179-84. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Moderately elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration is a systemic marker of inflammation and a documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy persons. Unrecognized infections, such as periodontal disease, may induce an acute-phase response, elevating CRP levels. We evaluated the association between periodontal disease and CRP levels in adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Oral examinations were conducted between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 1998, on 5552 ARIC participants (aged 52-74 years) from 4 US communities. Periodontal disease was quantified as the percentage of periodontal sites with pocket depth of 4 mm or more. Serum CRP concentration was quantified in milligrams per liter using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean (SE) CRP level was 7.6 (0.6) mg/L among people with extensive periodontal pockets (>30% of sites with pocket depth > or =4 mm), approximately one-third greater than that for people with less extensive periodontal pockets (5.7 [0.1] mg/L). In a multivariable linear regression model that controlled for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, cigarette use, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, the association of extensive periodontal pockets with CRP concentration was modified by body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters). For people with a BMI of 20, the model predicted a 2-fold difference in mean CRP concentration between periodontal pocket groups (7.5 vs 3.6 mg/L), but the difference decreased with increasing BMI and was negligible when BMI equaled 35. Extensive periodontal disease and BMI are jointly associated with increased CRP levels in otherwise healthy, middle-aged adults, suggesting the need for medical and dental diagnoses when evaluating sources of acute-phase response in some patients.Archives of Internal Medicine 05/2003; 163(10):1172-9. · 11.46 Impact Factor