Lameness, athletic performance, and financial returns in yearling Thoroughbreds bought for the purpose of resale for profit.
ABSTRACT To characterize lameness during training and compare exercise variables and financial returns among yearling Thoroughbreds that were bought for the purpose of resale for profit.
40 yearling Thoroughbreds.
Horses purchased at yearling sales (summer 2004) were trained prior to resale at 2-year-olds in training sales (spring 2005). Horses were monitored daily for diagnosis and treatment of lameness during training. Selected variables, including sex, age, purchase price, lameness, distance (No. of furlongs) galloped during training, and financial returns, were compared among horses that had performance speeds (assessed at 2-year-olds in training sales) classified as fast, average, or slow.
37 of 40 horses became lame during training, most commonly because of joint injury. Eighteen of the lame horses had hind limb injuries only; 5 horses had injuries in forelimbs and hind limbs. The frequency of new cases of lameness increased as the date of the 2-year-olds in training sales approached. At the sales, 4, 21, and 15 horses were classified as fast, average, or slow, respectively; median financial return was slightly (but significantly) different among horses classified as fast ($14,000), average ($0), or slow (-$8,000).
Incidence of lameness during training in yearling horses purchased for the purpose of resale for profit was high. Lameness more commonly affected hind limbs than forelimbs and was attributable to joint injury in most horses. Financial returns differed between horses classified as fast and average or slow at the 2-year-olds in training sales.
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ABSTRACT: La claudicación asociada a la enfermedad articular (EA) en el equino atleta es una importante causa de pérdida económica. El programa de entrenamiento intenso provoca sobrecargas biomecánicas en las articulaciones sinoviales con la activación de metaloproteinasas, lo cual ha sido relacionado con la patogénesis de la EA en el caballo, caracterizada por la degradación de la matriz extracelular del cartílago articular. Este fenómeno ocurre tempranamente en la EA provocando la liberación de componentes estructurales del cartílago al espacio articular. Así, varias moléculas componentes normales del tejido articular o subproductos del metabolismo modifican sus concentraciones en el tejido articular y líquido sinovial, por lo cual es factible medirlos y usarlos como biomarcadores moleculares de EA. Un ejemplo de esto es la evaluación en el líquido sinovial de los niveles de agrecán y de colágeno tipo II, moléculas que son producidas en elevada cantidad en esta patología. Este procedimiento ha permitido mejorar el entendimiento y el diagnóstico precoz de la EA en equinos. La presente revisión pretende dar una visión actualizada de los principales biomarcadores moleculares posibles de usar en EA equina, sus orígenes en el tejido articular y el uso en el estudio de la EA del caballo.Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 01/2010; 42(1). DOI:10.4067/S0301-732X2010000100002 · 0.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of a traditional Italian conditioning method (CM). Six Standardbred yearlings were kept in standardized conditions for 140 days. From T1 (day 1) to T10 (day 10), the horses were hitched for 30 minutes/day to accustom them to a cart. From T11 to T70, they were jogged or exercised for 30 minutes/day at a slow trot (4.4 ± 0.3 m/second) and from T71 to T140 for 40 minutes/day (5 m/second ± 0.3 m/second). Every 15 days, the horses performed fast exercise for a distance of 5,000 m with increased speeds. Blood samples were collected before and after daily training (DT) every 21 days (P1…P7), to measure the following variables: erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), total protein (Pt), albumin, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and blood lactate. A three-step standardized exercise test (SET) also was performed. Analysis of variance was used to study differences during the training. Tukey's post-hoc test was used for statistical multiple comparison (P ≤ 0.05 and 0.01). Lactate level did not show an increase over 4 mmol/L in all periods. Glucose was higher at P1 than P7. There was no correlation between method of conditioning and the level of CK, LDH, or AST. Conditioning method induced an increase in triglycerides for the change in exercise metabolism supply. According to SET, conditioning method induced an increase of SVO2max (speed [m/second] reached to a theoretical maximal oxygen consumption), V4 (speed [m/second] reached at a lactate content of 4 mmol/L), V200 (speed [m/second] at 200 beats/minute) and HR4 (heart rate [beats/minute] at 4 mmol/L of lactate). We concluded that the Italian conditioning method used in this study improved the fitness of horses.Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 12/2008; 28(12):743-750. DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2008.10.022 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Lameness is a common problem in the horse. Despite this, information on the incidence of lameness in horses in the UK is restricted to studies of lameness in performance horses, racehorses, or referral hospital populations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the overall incidence, and common causes of lameness in a working horse population, and the incidence, duration and outcome of the conditions observed. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire study METHODS: Questionnaires were used to record lameness episodes in 294 horses in an equine military establishment. Information recorded included age, years of service, type of work, causal lesion, time taken to return to work and outcome. Lameness problems could be reported by any staff involved in the horses' care and were diagnosed by a veterinary surgeon or qualified farrier. Trends between lame and non-lame populations were compared using chi-square analysis. Lameness diagnoses were grouped and analysed by disease category. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires for 273 horses were analysed. The mean monthly incidence of lameness was 2.1%, equivalent to an annual rate of 25.4 cases per 100 horses per annum, with a mean of 1.2 lameness episodes per horse in the lame population. Horse age and duration of service were not significantly different between the lame and non-lame populations. The most common diagnoses were cellulitis (18.6%), skin wounds (16.3%) and foot/shoeing problems (11.6%) and 88% of cases had returned to previous levels of work by the conclusion of the study. CONCLUSIONS: This initial field study showed that lameness is a common occurrence in this working military horse population, and the majority of cases make a full return to work. The most common causes of lameness identified in this study and the outcomes of these conditions differ from existing literature. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: This study highlights the need for further studies of lameness in the wider horse population.Equine Veterinary Journal 04/2013; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/evj.12084/pdf. DOI:10.1111/evj.12084 · 2.37 Impact Factor