Serum liver enzyme activities in healthy Miniature Schnauzers with and without hypertriglyceridemia
ABSTRACT To determine whether hypertriglyceridemia in healthy Miniature Schnauzers is associated with high serum liver enzyme activities.
65 Miniature Schnauzers with serum triglyceride concentrations within the reference range (group 1), 20 Miniature Schnauzers with slightly high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 2), and 20 Miniature Schnauzers with moderately to severely high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 3).
Questionnaires regarding each dog's medical history were completed, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and G-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities were measured.
Median serum ALP activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 or 2 dogs, but was not significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 dogs. Median serum ALT activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 dogs, but was not significantly different between any of the other groups. Compared with group 1 dogs, group 2 and 3 dogs were significantly more likely to have high serum ALP activity (odds ratio, 26.2 and 192.6, respectively). Group 3 dogs also were significantly more likely to have high serum ALT activity (odds ratio, 8.0), serum AST activity (odds ratio, 3.7), and serum GGT activity (odds ratio, 11.3), compared with group 1 dogs. Group 3 dogs were significantly more likely (odds ratio, 31.0) to have > or = 2 high serum liver enzyme activities than were group 1 dogs.
Results suggested that moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia was associated with high serum liver enzyme activities in Miniature Schnauzers.
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ABSTRACT: Background Despite the importance of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism in clinical canine medicine, the fact that most previously used methods for lipoprotein profiling are rather laborious and time-consuming has been a major obstacle to the wide clinical application and use of lipoprotein profiling in this species. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of a continuous lipoprotein density profile (CLPDP) generated within a bismuth sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaBiEDTA) density gradient to characterize and compare the lipoprotein profiles of healthy dogs of various breeds, healthy Miniature Schnauzers, and Miniature Schnauzers with primary hypertriacylglycerolemia. A total of 35 healthy dogs of various breeds with serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol concentrations within their respective reference intervals were selected for use as a reference population. Thirty-one Miniature Schnauzers with serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within their respective reference intervals and 31 Miniature Schnauzers with hypertriacylglyceridemia were also included in the study. Results The results suggest that CLPDP using NaBiEDTA provides unique diagnostic information in addition to measurements of serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations and that it is a useful screening method for dogs with suspected lipoprotein metabolism disorders. Using the detailed and continuous density distribution information provided by the CLPDP, important differences in lipoprotein profiles can be detected even among dogs that have serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within the reference interval. Miniature Schnauzers with serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within the reference interval had significantly different lipoprotein profiles than dogs of various other breeds. In addition, it was further established that specific lipoprotein fractions are associated with hypertriacylglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that density gradient ultracentrifugation using NaBiEDTA is a useful screening method for the study of lipoprotein profiles in dogs. Therefore, this method could potentially be used for diagnostic purposes for the separation of dogs suspected of having lipoprotein abnormalities from healthy dogs.BMC Veterinary Research 03/2013; 9(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-9-47 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To develop a standardized meal challenge test by assessing associations between food-withheld preprandial (ie, fasting) and postprandial triglyceride concentrations, determining the most appropriate sampling time to detect the peak concentration (highest postprandial concentration), and estimating reference intervals for fasting and postprandial concentrations in healthy dogs. 12 lean healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were fed a dry commercially available diet (fat, 31% metabolizable energy) for 3 weeks. After food was withheld for 23 to 24 hours, plasma triglyceride concentrations were measured 1 and 0.083 hours before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 hours after feeding of a standardized challenge meal (median amount eaten, 63 kcal/kg [127 kcal/kg⁰.⁷⁵]). Correlation and agreement between concentrations at peak and other time points were assessed by use of correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Reference intervals were calculated by use of a robust method. Fasting and peak triglyceride concentrations were not closely associated. The highest concentration among samples obtained 2, 5, and 6 hours after meal consumption had closest agreement with peak concentration. In 5 of 12 dogs, concentrations 12 hours after eating were still significantly above baseline concentration (mean of each dog's fasting concentrations). Conclusions and Fasting triglyceride concentration could not be used to accurately predict peak concentration. When estimating peak concentration, multiple samples should be collected 2, 5, and 6 hours after consumption of a standardized meal. Food may need to be withheld for > 12 hours when assessing fasting concentrations in healthy dogs.American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/2011; 72(2):161-8. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.72.2.161 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the use of IV lipid emulsion (ILE) for the treatment of toxicities related to fat-soluble agents; evaluate current human and veterinary literature; and to provide proposed guidelines for the use of this emerging therapy in veterinary medicine and toxicology. Human and veterinary medical literature. Human data are composed mostly of case reports describing the response to treatment with ILE as variant from mild improvement to complete resolution of clinical signs, which is suspected to be due to the variability of lipid solubility of the drugs. The use of ILE therapy has been advocated as an antidote in cases of local anesthetic and other lipophilic drug toxicoses, particularly in the face of cardiopulmonary arrest and unsuccessful cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation. The use of ILE therapy in veterinary medicine has recently been advocated by animal poison control centers for toxicoses associated with fat-soluble agents, but there are only few clinical reports documenting successful use of this therapy. Evidence for the use of ILE in both human and veterinary medicine is composed primarily from experimental animal data. The use of ILE appears to be a safe therapy for the poisoned animal patient, but is warranted only with certain toxicoses. Adverse events associated with ILE in veterinary medicine are rare and anecdotal. Standard resuscitation protocols should be exhausted before considering this therapy and the potential side effects should be evaluated before administration of ILE as a potential antidote in cases of lipophilic drug toxicoses. Further research is waranted.08/2011; 21(4):309-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-4431.2011.00657.x