Serum liver enzyme activities in healthy Miniature Schnauzers with and without hypertriglyceridemia
Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
(Impact Factor: 1.56).
01/2008; 232(1):63-7. DOI: 10.2460/javma.232.1.63
To determine whether hypertriglyceridemia in healthy Miniature Schnauzers is associated with high serum liver enzyme activities.
65 Miniature Schnauzers with serum triglyceride concentrations within the reference range (group 1), 20 Miniature Schnauzers with slightly high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 2), and 20 Miniature Schnauzers with moderately to severely high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 3).
Questionnaires regarding each dog's medical history were completed, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and G-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities were measured.
Median serum ALP activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 or 2 dogs, but was not significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 dogs. Median serum ALT activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 dogs, but was not significantly different between any of the other groups. Compared with group 1 dogs, group 2 and 3 dogs were significantly more likely to have high serum ALP activity (odds ratio, 26.2 and 192.6, respectively). Group 3 dogs also were significantly more likely to have high serum ALT activity (odds ratio, 8.0), serum AST activity (odds ratio, 3.7), and serum GGT activity (odds ratio, 11.3), compared with group 1 dogs. Group 3 dogs were significantly more likely (odds ratio, 31.0) to have > or = 2 high serum liver enzyme activities than were group 1 dogs.
Results suggested that moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia was associated with high serum liver enzyme activities in Miniature Schnauzers.
Available from: Rosemary L Walzem
- "In one study, hypertriacylglycerolemia was present in 32.8% of 192 Miniature Schnauzers investigated . In this breed, hyperlipidemia, and more specifically hypertriacylgly-cerolemia, might be associated with diseases such as hepatobiliary disease, pancreatitis, insulin resistance, and ocular disease [16,17,20,22]. The biochemical, metabolic, and genetic bases of hypertriacylglycerolemia in Miniature Schnauzers have not been identified yet. "
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Despite the importance of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism in clinical canine medicine, the fact that most previously used methods for lipoprotein profiling are rather laborious and time-consuming has been a major obstacle to the wide clinical application and use of lipoprotein profiling in this species. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of a continuous lipoprotein density profile (CLPDP) generated within a bismuth sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaBiEDTA) density gradient to characterize and compare the lipoprotein profiles of healthy dogs of various breeds, healthy Miniature Schnauzers, and Miniature Schnauzers with primary hypertriacylglycerolemia. A total of 35 healthy dogs of various breeds with serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol concentrations within their respective reference intervals were selected for use as a reference population. Thirty-one Miniature Schnauzers with serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within their respective reference intervals and 31 Miniature Schnauzers with hypertriacylglyceridemia were also included in the study.
The results suggest that CLPDP using NaBiEDTA provides unique diagnostic information in addition to measurements of serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations and that it is a useful screening method for dogs with suspected lipoprotein metabolism disorders. Using the detailed and continuous density distribution information provided by the CLPDP, important differences in lipoprotein profiles can be detected even among dogs that have serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within the reference interval. Miniature Schnauzers with serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within the reference interval had significantly different lipoprotein profiles than dogs of various other breeds. In addition, it was further established that specific lipoprotein fractions are associated with hypertriacylglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers.
The results of the present study suggest that density gradient ultracentrifugation using NaBiEDTA is a useful screening method for the study of lipoprotein profiles in dogs. Therefore, this method could potentially be used for diagnostic purposes for the separation of dogs suspected of having lipoprotein abnormalities from healthy dogs.
BMC Veterinary Research 03/2013; 9(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-9-47 · 1.78 Impact Factor
Available from: unl.edu.ar
- " . Although asymptom - atic in many cases , both vacuolar hepatopathy and gallbladder mucocele can potentially be fatal ( Center , 1996 ; Aguirre et al . , 2007 ) . Idiopathic hypertriglyceridemia ( especially P4 . 52 mmol / L or 400 mg / dL ) was found to be associated with increased serum liver enzyme activities in healthy Miniature Schnauzers ( Xenoulis et al . , 2008 ) . In that study , 60% and 45% of the Miniature Schnau - zers with serum triglyceride concentrations P4 . 52 mmol / L ( 400 mg / dL ) had increased ALP and ALT activities , respectively ."
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ABSTRACT: Lipid metabolism in dogs can be divided into exogenous and endogenous pathways and exhibits some unique characteristics compared to other species. Hyperlipidemia is common in dogs, and can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidemia is the most common form and can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, and high fat diets. Primary hyperlipidemia is less common and usually associated with certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common type of primary hyperlipidemia in dogs in the United States, and appears to have a genetic basis although its etiology remains unknown. Possible complications of canine hyperlipidemia include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease, and seizures. Management is achieved by administration of low fat diets with or without the administration of lipid-lowering agents such as omega-3 fatty acids, gemfibrozil, and niacin.
The Veterinary Journal 02/2009; 183(1):12-21. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.10.011 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Miniature Schnauzers are the first canine breed, in the United States, reported to suffer from primary hyperlipidemia, but this has yet to be documented in other regions. Using over 900 canine plasma samples collected from over seven different veterinary clinics across Japan, the aim of this study was to compare plasma triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations between Miniature Schnauzers and other purebreeds in Japan. In addition, we investigated the influence of aging and sex on changes to hyperlipidemia incidence in purebred dogs. Our results indicated that both Miniature Schnauzers and Shetland sheepdogs in Japan exhibited remarkably high concentrations of plasma TG and total cholesterol, which are considered to be signs of hyperlipidemia, as compared to other purebred and mixed (Mongrel) canine breeds. Interestingly, the cause and conditions of primary hyperlipidemia in Miniature Schnauzers and Shetland sheepdogs might be different, with hypertriglyceridemia predominantly occurring with Miniature Schnauzers and hypercholesterolemia occurring in Shetland sheepdogs. However, with the influence of aging, the hyperlipidemia evolves into both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in both groups indicating that the severity of hyperlipidemia positively correlates with aging. Gender differences were also observed with regards to severity. In fact, a higher severity was prevalent with female Miniature Schnauzers than their male counterparts whereas it was more balanced between genders for Shetland sheepdogs.
Research in Veterinary Science 06/2010; 88(3):394-9. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2009.12.003 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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