Triple negative tumours: a critical review

The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.
Histopathology (Impact Factor: 3.3). 02/2008; 52(1):108-18. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2007.02889.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses several distinct entities with remarkably different biological characteristics and clinical behaviour. Currently, breast cancer patients are managed according to algorithms based on a constellation of clinical and histopathological parameters in conjunction with assessment of hormone receptor (oestrogen and progesterone receptor) status and HER2 overexpression/gene amplification. Although effective tailored therapies have been developed for patients with hormone receptor-positive or HER2+ disease, chemotherapy is the only modality of systemic therapy for patients with breast cancers lacking the expression of these markers (triple-negative cancers). Recent microarray expression profiling analyses have demonstrated that breast cancers can be systematically characterized into biologically and clinically meaningful groups. These studies have led to the re-discovery of basal-like breast cancers, which preferentially show a triple-negative phenotype. Both triple-negative and basal-like cancers preferentially affect young and African-American women, are of high histological grade and have more aggressive clinical behaviour. Furthermore, a significant overlap between the biological and clinical characteristics of sporadic triple-negative and basal-like cancers and breast carcinomas arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this review, we critically address the characteristics of basal-like and triple-negative cancers, their similarities and differences, their response to chemotherapy as well as strategies for the development of novel therapeutic targets for these aggressive types of breast cancer. In addition, the possible mechanisms are discussed leading to BRCA1 pathway dysfunction in sporadic triple-negative and basal-like cancers and animal models for these tumour types.

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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), an intracellular lipid binding protein, has been shown to play a role in various cancers, including breast cancer. However, FABP5 and its role in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have not been studied. We show FABP5 protein expression correlates with TNBC, high grade tumors, and worse disease-free survival in a tissue microarray containing 423 breast cancer patient samples. High FABP5 expression significantly correlates with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in these samples. Decreased tumor growth and lung metastasis were observed in FABP5-/- mice othotopically injected with murine breast cancer cells. FABP5 loss in TNBC tumor cells inhibited motility and invasion. Mechanistic studies revealed that FABP5 knockdown in TNBC cells results in decreased EGFR expression and FABP5 is important for EGF-induced metastatic signaling. Loss of FABP5 leads to proteasomal targeting of EGFR. Our studies show that FABP5 has a role in both host and tumor cell during breast cancer progression. These findings suggest that FABP5 mediates its enhanced effect on TNBC metastasis, in part, through EGFR, by inhibiting EGFR proteasomal degradation. These studies show, for the first time, a correlation between FABP5 and EGFR in enhancing TNBC metastasis through a novel mechanism.
    Oncotarget 01/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. More and more evidences demonstrate that androgen receptor (AR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) have unique clinical implications for targeted therapy or prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the possible associations. Methods. We retrieved published articles about AR, EGFR, and BRCA1 in TNBC from PubMed and EMBASE. The analysis was performed with Rev-Man 5.2 software. Results. A total of 38 articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. Our study showed that the expression level of EGFR (OR = 6.88, P < 0.00001) and the prevalence of BRCA1 mutation (RR = 5.26, P < 0.00001) were higher in TNBC than non-TNBC. In contrast, the expression level of AR was lower in TNBC than non-TNBC (OR = 0.07, P < 0.00001). In the subgroup related to EGFR expression, the level of EGFR expression was significantly increased in Asians (OR = 9.60) compared with Caucasians (OR = 5.53) for TNBC patients. Additionally, the prevalence of BRCA1 mutation in Asians (RR = 5.43, P < 0.00001) was higher than that in Caucasians (RR = 5.16, P < 0.00001). Conclusions. The distinct expression of AR and EGFR and the prevalence of BRCA1 mutation indicated that AR, EGFR, and BRCA1 might be unique biomarkers for targeted therapy and prognosis in TNBC.
    BioMed Research International 2015:357485. DOI:10.1155/2015/357485 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the expression and clinical significance of proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism in human breast tumors. Tumors from 476 breast cancer patients were used to construct tissue microarrays. Then, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), Perilipin 1 (PLIN1), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT-1A), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX-1), and fatty acid synthase (FASN) was performed on these microarrays. Breast tumors were classified into 4 subtypes: luminal A (n = 242; 50.8%), luminal B (n = 134; 28.2%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (n = 50; 10.5%), and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (n = 50; 10.5%). The expression of PLIN1 (p < 0.001), FABP4 (p = 0.029), CPT-1A (p = 0.001), ACOX-1 (p < 0.001), and FASN (p < 0.001) differed significantly among these tumor subtypes. Notably, PLIN1, CPT-1A, and FASN expression was highest in HER2 tumors and lowest in TNBC tumors. Similarly, the expression of FABP4 and ACOX-1 was highest in HER2 tumors and lowest in luminal A tumors. In addition, ACOX-1 positivity was associated with significantly shorter overall survival (p = 0.018). When tumor subtype was considered, FABP4 positivity was associated with significantly shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.005) and overall survival (p = 0.041) in TNBC. Lipid metabolism-related proteins are differentially expressed in different IHC subtypes of breast cancer and some are associated with decreased survival rates.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119473. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119473 · 3.53 Impact Factor


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