Clinical and parasite species risk factors for pentavalent antimonial treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.
ABSTRACT Treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with standard pentavalent antimonial therapy is hampered by cumbersome administration, toxicity, and potential failure. Knowledge of factors influencing treatment outcome is essential for successful management.
A case-control study of incident cases was performed with patients experiencing their first CL episode. The standard treatment for CL for these patients was 20 mg/kg/day of sodium stibogluconate for 20 days. Clinical and epidemiological data were recorded, and parasite isolates were species typed. Patients were followed up for 6 months to assess treatment outcome. Clinical cure was defined as complete wound closure and re-epithelization without inflammation or infiltration; new lesions, wound reopening, or signs of activity were classified as treatment failure. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed.
One hundred twenty-seven patients were recruited; 63 (49.6%) were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, 29 (22.8%) were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 27 (21.3%) were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, and 8 (6.3%) were infected with other species. Only patients infected with the 3 most common species were selected for risk-factor analysis (n=119). Final failure rate at 6 months was 24.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5%-32.1%), with 96% of failures occurring within the first 3 months of follow-up assessment. Risk factors for treatment failure identified in the final multivariate model were age (per year, odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P=.017), stay of <72 months in area of disease acquisition (OR, 30.45; 95% CI, 2.38-389.25; P=.009), duration of disease <5 weeks (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.12-17.23; P=.034), additional lesion (per lesion, OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.3-3.28; P=.002), infection with L. (V.) peruviana (OR, 9.85; 95% CI, 1.01-95.65; P=.049), and infection with L. (V.) braziliensis (OR, 22.36; 95% CI, 1.89-263.96; P=.014).
The identification of parasite species and clinical risk factors for antimonial treatment failure should lead to an improved management of CL in patients in Peru.
- SourceAvailable from: Chihiro Sugimoto[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While PCR is a method of choice for the detection of African trypanosomes in both humans and animals, the expense of this method negates its use as a diagnostic method for the detection of endemic trypanosomiasis in African countries. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction is a method that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity under isothermal conditions with only simple incubators. An added advantage of LAMP over PCR-based methods is that DNA amplification can be monitored spectrophotometrically and/or with the naked eye without the use of dyes. Here we report our conditions for a highly sensitive, specific, and easy diagnostic assay based on LAMP technology for the detection of parasites in the Trypanosoma brucei group (including T. brucei brucei, T. brucei gambiense, T. brucei rhodesiense, and T. evansi) and T. congolense. We show that the sensitivity of the LAMP-based method for detection of trypanosomes in vitro is up to 100 times higher than that of PCR-based methods. In vivo studies in mice infected with human-infective T. brucei gambiense further highlight the potential clinical importance of LAMP as a diagnostic tool for the identification of African trypanosomiasis.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2004; 41(12):5517-24. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom are now returning to the United States after potential exposure to leishmaniasis. In the past year, large numbers of leishmaniasis cases of a magnitude not encountered in the United States since World War II have challenged clinicians in both the military and the civilian sectors. Many Reserve and National Guard troops were deployed to Iraq and are now back in their communities. Hundreds of leishmaniasis cases, which were managed by a few practitioners initially, permitted further appreciation of the epidemiology and diagnostic and treatment options for Old World leishmaniasis. We describe the current situation, with on-the-ground experience, complimented by a literature review, and we provide a practical list of options for the clinician likely to encounter this parasitic infection in the coming months and years.Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2005; 39(11):1674-80. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some pathogens (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania spp) have been shown to persist in their host after clinical cure, establishing the risk of disease reactivation. We analyzed the conditions necessary for the long term maintenance of Leishmania major in genetically resistant C57BL/6 mice after spontaneous healing of their dermal lesions. Interleukin (IL)-10 was found to play an essential role in parasite persistence as sterile cure was achieved in IL-10-deficient and IL-4/IL-10 double-deficient mice. The requirement for IL-10 in establishing latency associated with natural infection was confirmed in IL-10-deficient mice challenged by bite of infected sand flies. The host-parasite equilibrium was maintained by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells which were each able to release IL-10 or interferon (IFN)-gamma, and were found to accumulate in chronic sites of infection, including the skin and draining lymph node. A high frequency of the dermal CD4+ T cells released both IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Wild-type mice treated transiently during the chronic phase with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies achieved sterile cure, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach to eliminate latency, infection reservoirs, and the risk of reactivation disease.Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2001; 194(10):1497-506. · 13.21 Impact Factor