Clinical and parasite species risk factors for pentavalent antimonial treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.
ABSTRACT Treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with standard pentavalent antimonial therapy is hampered by cumbersome administration, toxicity, and potential failure. Knowledge of factors influencing treatment outcome is essential for successful management.
A case-control study of incident cases was performed with patients experiencing their first CL episode. The standard treatment for CL for these patients was 20 mg/kg/day of sodium stibogluconate for 20 days. Clinical and epidemiological data were recorded, and parasite isolates were species typed. Patients were followed up for 6 months to assess treatment outcome. Clinical cure was defined as complete wound closure and re-epithelization without inflammation or infiltration; new lesions, wound reopening, or signs of activity were classified as treatment failure. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed.
One hundred twenty-seven patients were recruited; 63 (49.6%) were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, 29 (22.8%) were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 27 (21.3%) were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, and 8 (6.3%) were infected with other species. Only patients infected with the 3 most common species were selected for risk-factor analysis (n=119). Final failure rate at 6 months was 24.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5%-32.1%), with 96% of failures occurring within the first 3 months of follow-up assessment. Risk factors for treatment failure identified in the final multivariate model were age (per year, odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P=.017), stay of <72 months in area of disease acquisition (OR, 30.45; 95% CI, 2.38-389.25; P=.009), duration of disease <5 weeks (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.12-17.23; P=.034), additional lesion (per lesion, OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.3-3.28; P=.002), infection with L. (V.) peruviana (OR, 9.85; 95% CI, 1.01-95.65; P=.049), and infection with L. (V.) braziliensis (OR, 22.36; 95% CI, 1.89-263.96; P=.014).
The identification of parasite species and clinical risk factors for antimonial treatment failure should lead to an improved management of CL in patients in Peru.
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ABSTRACT: Leishmania are the causative protozoal agents of leishmaniasis, that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in more than 88 countries. In the absence of any effective vaccines, the only feasible way to treat leishmaniasis is through the use of medications. The first line drugs is composed of molecules developed in the 1950s, like pentavalent antimony (i.e., Pentostam®, Glucantime®). Currently Leishmania antimony resistance still continues to emerge in various part of the world. In Algeria, as early as 1986, a high rate of treatment failure (48.5%) was recorded during the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. In addition, lower sensitivity to meglumine antimoniate was observed in L. major isolated from Psammomys obesus, a reservoir host. More recently decrease antimony susceptibility was reported in L. infantum strains. The current studies engaged in Algeria on the susceptibility of Leishmania parasites will shed light not only on the occurrence of antimony resistance in this area but also on factors that are involved in the selection of antimony resistance in natural Leishmania populations.12/2013: pages 678-689;
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protozoa of the Leishmania genus cause a variety of disease forms that rank at the top of the list of neglected tropical diseases. Anti-leishmanial drugs based on pentavalent antimony have been the mainstay of therapy for over 60 years and resistance against them is increasingly encountered in the field. The biochemical basis for this is poorly understood and likely diverse. No stringent correlation between genetic markers and antimony resistance has so far been shown, prompting us to use a functional cloning approach to identify markers of resistance. Using gene libraries derived from drug-resistant and drug-sensitive Leishmania braziliensis clinical isolates in a functional cloning strategy, we repeatedly selected one gene locus located on chromosome 20 whose amplification confers increased antimony (III) resistance in vitro to an otherwise sensitive L. braziliensis clone. The gene responsible for the effect encodes a previously hypothetical protein that we dubbed LbrARM58. It comprises four repeats of a domain of unknown function, DUF1935, one of them harbouring a potential trans-membrane domain. The gene is so far unique to the Leishmania genus, while a structurally related gene without antimony resistance functionality is also found in Trypanosoma spp. Overexpression of LbrARM58 also confers antimony resistance to promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the related species Leishmania infantum, indicating a conserved function in Old World and New World Leishmania species. Our results also show that in spite of their RNAi system, L. braziliensis promastigotes can serve as acceptor cells for episomally propagated cosmid libraries, at least for the initial stages of functional cloning efforts.International journal for parasitology. Drugs and drug resistance. 04/2014; 4(1):37-47.