The strategy for monitoring HIV/AIDS in China has evolved with the epidemic. The national HIV/AIDS surveillance system was established in 1985 and sentinel surveillance started in 1995. Initially, 42 sentinel sites were established to monitor the epidemic among certain high-risk groups, including drug users, female sex workers, STD clinic attendees and long-distance truck drivers in epidemic areas. In the last decade the programme has been considerably expanded. Target groups now also include pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), clients of female sex workers and tuberculosis (TB) patients. By the end of 2006, 393 national and 370 provincial sites report to the National Centre for AIDS/Sexually transmitted disease Control and Prevention. In 2004, a nationwide HIV testing campaign was launched among certain high risk groups, including former plasma donors and injecting drug users. Routine testing in health care settings and detention centres was introduced in 2005. Behavioural surveillance began in 2004 and there were already 159 sites in 27 provinces by the end of 2006. In addition a number of epidemiological surveys have been undertaken among various groups to augment surveillance data. The combination of these comprehensive strategies is used to monitor the HIV/AIDS epidemic and guide policy decision-making. The Chinese experience illustrates how surveillance systems need to be dynamic in order to monitor trends in HIV over time.
"At present, the MSM population has become one of the high-risk groups for HIV/STD infection because of their active sexual activities without protection
. According to a systematic review and meta-analysis on HIV incidence among MSMs in China, about 33% of new HIV cases in 2009 occurred in MSMs who account for only 2-4% of the Chinese adult male population
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), very little information regarding the prevalence of MG among MSM (men who have sex with men) is available in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MG among MSM in the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with MG infection in this population.
Between January and May 2010, a total of 409 MSM were recruited in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information regarding their sociological and sexual behaviors. In addition, their first-void urine (FVU) samples and rectal swabs were collected for PCR-based MG testing.
Among the 406 FVU and 405 rectal swab samples were collected from 409 MSM, the overall MG prevalence was 8.1% (33/406, 95% CI 5.7%-10.6%), with a FVU positivity of 3.4% (95% CI 1.7%-5.4%) and a rectal positivity of 5.4% (95% CI 3.5%-7.7%). Using both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, urethral MG infection was significantly associated with having more heterosexual behaviors (AOR 7.16, 95% CI 1.89-27.13,) and with having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months (AOR 4.80, 95%CI 1.40-16.47). Rectal MG infection was significantly associated with HIV infection based on univariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 1.18-17.12).
In this study, we investigated the prevalence of MG infection in the population of interest, as determined from both urethral and rectal specimen. We showed that MG was more prevalent in MSM who had bisexual behaviors compared to those who engaged only in homosexual behaviors. Further work is needed to establish the mode of MG transmission and to identify its role in HIV transmission. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to MG infection among MSMs, and especially bisexual MSMs, which might have critical implications for effective HIV/STD control in China.
BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):195. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-195 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"In China, an estimation showed that 740,000 people living suffered from HIV in 2007, including about 105,000 cases of AIDS. HIV can be transmitted through three main routes: unprotected vaginal, anal and oral sex; direct blood contact; mother to baby before or during birth or through breast milk[10, 11]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia is the second most malignant tumor in children. The chemotherapy induced anemia (CIA) and hemorrhage are the most popular side-effects due to the myelosuppression of chemotherapy. So far, multitransfusion is still the timely and effective measure in curing these complications. The acquisition of HIV infection and subsequent development of AIDS by component transfusion from donors at risk is well known, and prognosis of HIV infection is particularly severe in patients with leukemia.
We report two leukemic cases that were infected with HIV through transfusion. The first patient was totally transfused with 16 U RBC, 20 U platelets and 820 ml fresh frozen plasma, and later test showed that his first used FFP carried the HIV. For the second 2 U RBC, 5 U platelets and 1500 ml fresh frozen plasma were transfused to her. Late test of her used blood products showed that the fourth RBC carried the HIV. Both results were confirmed by the local Center for Disease Control (CDC). They were not transfused before the diagnosis of leukemia. Their parents were healthy with negative HIV-Ab.
Since the two leukemic patients suffered transfusion-associated HIV with poor prognosis, we must take more efforts to utilize blood products judiciously, manage blood donors, test blood samples etiologically, shorten HIV testing "window periods" and develop preventive vaccination against HIV to reduce the incidence as low as possible.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 09/2012; 22(3):417-20. · 0.52 Impact Factor
"Anonymity and confidentiality were guaranteed to the detainees when they participated in the survey. Under the approval of the protocol "HIV Surveillance Protocol" by the national ethical committee of China (Institutional Review Board), informed consent from participants in behavioral surveillance was required during survey . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees.
There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956) who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956) elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program.
This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.
BMC Public Health 04/2010; 10:221. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-10-221 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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