Chorionic gonadotropin induces dendritic cells to express a tolerogenic phenotype

Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. .
Journal of Leukocyte Biology (Impact Factor: 4.3). 05/2008; 83(4):894-901. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0407258
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been suggested to play an immunoregulatory role in addition to its endocrine function, thus contributing to the prevention of fetal rejection. We hypothesized that hCG is involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance by the regulation of dendritic cell (DC) function. Therefore, we studied the effect of hCG on DC maturation. Upon hCG treatment in combination with LPS, mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) increased the ratio of IL-10:IL-12p70, down-regulated TNF-alpha, and decreased antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Addition of hCG together with LPS and IFN-gamma blocked MHC class II up-regulation, increased IL-10 production, and decreased the antigen-specific T cell proliferation by DC. Splenic DC showed similar results. Upon hCG treatment, IDO mRNA expression and its metabolite kynurenine were increased by LPS- and IFN-gamma-stimulated DC, suggesting its involvement in the decreased T cell proliferation. To study the effect of hCG on DC differentiation from precursors, BMDC were generated in the continuous presence of hCG. Under this condition, hCG decreased cytokine production and the induction of T cell proliferation. These data are suggestive for a contribution of hCG to the maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy by modifying DC toward a tolerogenic phenotype.

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    BMC Immunology 01/2015; 16(1):2. DOI:10.1186/s12865-014-0065-9 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Surgery has wide ranging immunomodulatory properties of which the mechanism is poorly understood. In order to investigate how different types of surgery influence inflammation, we designed a longitudinal observational study investigating two inflammatory profiles of two separate patient groups undergoing gynaecological operations of differing severity. In addition to measuring the well known inflammatory markers neopterin and IL-6, we also determined the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio.This study was a prospective, single center, two-armed observational study involving 28 female patients. Plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, neopterin and IL-6 were determined from samples taken at: 24hrs pre-operative, prior to induction, ten minutes before the operation was expected to end, and at 24 and 96 hours post operative in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy and vulvectomy.ResultsThere were 15 and 13 patients included in the vulvectomy and abdominal hysterectomy groups, respectively. In this study we show that anesthesia and surgery significantly increases the enzyme activity of indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) as measured by the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (P=0.003), while maintaining stable neopterin levels. However, abdominal hysterectomy causes a considerable IL-6 increase (P<0.001).Conclusion Surgery and associated anesthesia cause a significant tryptophan level decrease while significantly increasing IDO activity. Both types of surgery produce nearly identical neopterin time curve relationships, with no significant change occurring in either group. However, even though neopterin is unaffected by the severity of surgery, IL-6 responded to surgical invasiveness by revealing a significant increase during abdominal hysterectomy.
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    ABSTRACT: Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother's immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has been expanded to include CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Pregnancy hormones exert very significant modulatory properties on the maternal immune system. In this review, we describe mechanisms by which the endocrine milieu modulates CD4 T cell polarization during pregnancy. We first focused on Treg and Th17 cells and on their importance for pregnancy. Secondly, we review the effects of pregnancy hormones [progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2)] on immune cells previously described, with a particular attention to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The importance of Treg cells for pregnancy is evidenced. They are recruited before implantation and are essential for pregnancy maintenance. Decreased number or less efficient Treg cells are implicated in fertility disorders. As for Th17 cells, the few available studies suggest that they have a negative impact on fertility. Th17 frequency is increased in infertile patients. With the combination of its pro-effects on Th2 and Treg cells and anti-effects on Th1 and Th17 cells, P4 contributes to establishment of a favorable environment for pregnancy. E2 effects are more dependent on the context but it seems that E2 promotes Treg and Th2 cells while it inhibits Th1 cells. hCG positively influences activities of Treg and uterine natural killer cells. This embryo signal is an essential actor for the success of pregnancy, both as the endocrine factor regulating P4 secretion by the ovarian corpus luteum, but also as a paracrine agent during implantation as well as an angiogenic and immunologic mediator during the course of gestation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) immune properties begin to be studied but its positive impact on Treg cells suggests that LH could be a considerable immunomodulator in the mouse.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 07/2014; 5:106. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2014.00106

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