A phase I trial of gemcitabine in combination with patupilone in patients with advanced solid tumors
ABSTRACT Chemotherapy regimens including gemcitabine in combination with microtubule inhibitors such as docetaxel and paclitaxel have wide clinical application. Patupilone is a novel tubulin-polymerizing agent with activity against paclitaxel-resistant cell lines. We conducted a phase I trial to assess the maximum tolerated dose, dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and antitumor activity of gemcitabine and patupilone.
Patients with refractory solid tumors enrolled in cohorts of three. Cohorts received fixed doses of gemcitabine (1,000 or 750 mg/m(2)) along with escalating doses of patupilone (1.5-3 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
Twenty-seven patients received a total of 99 courses of treatment on study. Hematologic toxicity in the first cohort required a modification of the protocol to decrease the gemcitabine dose. Subsequent patients received gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2) and escalating doses of patupilone from 1.5 to 3 mg/m(2). DLTs were grade 3 asthenia and grade 3 dehydration. There was also one treatment-related death due to neutropenic infection. Other clinically significant toxicities were persistent asthenia and persistent nausea. Four patients, one each with pancreatic cancer, esophageal carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma, experienced a partial response.
The dose-limiting toxicities of gemcitabine and patupilone were asthenia and dehydration. Dose reductions also occurred due to persistent fatigue that was not dose-limiting. However, patients with advanced malignancies were able to tolerate gemcitabine and patupilone at doses that resulted in clinical benefit. The recommended phase II dose for this schedule is gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2) and patupilone 1.5 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
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ABSTRACT: Microtubule-targeted anticancer drugs are effective in treating various cancers but are limited in use due to development of resistance and unacceptable toxicities. The epothilones are a novel class of microtubule-stabilizing anticancer drugs and may have a role in treating taxane-resistant cancers. Revised and updated data from several clinical studies for ixabepilone were recently published and subsequently resulted in ixabepilone becoming the first epothilone approved as monotherapy or in combination for treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. BMS-310705, patupilone, KOS-862, KOS-1584 and ZK-EPO are epothilones that have been developed. Although peripheral sensory neuropathy and neutropenia are the dose-limiting toxicities for ixabepilone, these dose-limiting toxicities are ixabepilone specific. This review will discuss the current preclinical, clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic, efficacy and toxicity data of the epothilones.Future Oncology 09/2008; 4(4):483-500. DOI:10.2217/147966126.96.36.1993 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the pharmacologic properties of a novel class of chemotherapeutic agents, the epothilones, and to summarize findings from recent clinical trials investigating the various epothilones in cancer therapy. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, and the abstract search engines for the American Society of Clinical Oncology and American Association for Cancer Research annual meetings (all searches through November 2008). Primary search terms included epothilone, BMS-247550, ixabepilone, EPO906, patupilone, sagopilone, and ZK-EPO. Publications were given priority for inclusion if they discussed structural or pharmacologic properties of the epothilones as a class or if they included preclinical or clinical data for epothilones currently in clinical development. The epothilones are a novel class of microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSAs). Epothilones are structurally and pharmacologically distinct from taxanes, but the exact ways in which the pharmacophores of the 2 classes differ has not been firmly established. A number of natural, semisynthetic, and fully synthetic epothilones are in various stages of clinical development. These agents differ from each other and from existing MSAs; these differences influence potency, stability, and solubility. Ixabepilone is currently approved to treat multidrug-resistant metastatic breast cancer and has demonstrated efficacy in earlier stages of breast cancer and in several other tumor types. Patupilone and sagopilone are currently under clinical investigation and have each shown promise in a number of treatment settings and tumor types. All 3 agents appear to be associated with manageable toxicities, but no class-wide toxicity profile exists for the epothilones and dose-limiting toxicities differ among the agents. The epothilones have demonstrated significant potential for addressing the growing therapeutic challenge of taxane resistance, and the ever-increasing pool of information regarding structure-activity relationships of these MSAs will help to optimize microtubule-targeted chemotherapy.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 08/2009; 43(7):1294-309. DOI:10.1345/aph.1M005 · 2.06 Impact Factor