Assessment of the acute toxicity of triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater based on the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri.
ABSTRACT In this work, the contributions of triclosan and its metabolite methyl triclosan to the overall acute toxicity of wastewater were studied using Vibrio fischeri. The protocol used in this paper involved various steps. First, the aquatic toxicities of triclosan and methyl triclosan were determined for standard substances, and the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)) were determined for these compounds. Second, the toxic responses to different mixtures of triclosan, methyl triclosan, and surfactants were studied in different water matrices, i.e., Milli-Q water, groundwater and wastewater, in order to evaluate (i) the antagonistic or synergistic effects, and (ii) the influence of the water matrices. Finally, chemical analysis was used in conjunction with the toxicity results in order to assess the aquatic toxicities of triclosan and its derivative in wastewaters. In this study, the toxicities of 45 real samples corresponding to the influents and effluents from eight wastewater treatment works (WWTW) were analyzed. Thirty-one samples were from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR), and the influent and the effluent samples after various treatments were characterized via different chromatographic approaches, including solid-phase extraction (SPE), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and SPE coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The toxicity was determined by measuring the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. In order to complete the study and to extrapolate the results to different WWTPs, the toxicity to V. fischeri of samples from seven more plants was analyzed, as were their triclosan and methyl triclosan concentrations. Good agreement was established between the overall toxicity values and concentrations of the biocides, indicating that triclosan is one of the major toxic organic pollutants currently found in domestic wastewaters.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16–51 ng/g) and TCC (4–53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms.Science of The Total Environment 02/2014; 472:235-238. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs. In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe(2+)). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction. The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC-MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Science of The Total Environment 11/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of coal rank on the composition and toxicity of water effluents resulting from two underground coal gasification experiments with distinct coal samples (lignite and hard coal) was investigated. A broad range of organic and inorganic parameters was determined in the sampled condensates. The physicochemical tests were supplemented by toxicity bioassays based on the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri as the test organism. The principal component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were adopted to assist in the interpretation of the raw experimental data, and the multiple regression statistical method was subsequently employed to enable predictions of the toxicity based on the values of the selected parameters. Significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative description of the contamination profiles were identified for both types of coal under study. Independent of the coal rank, the most characteristic organic components of the studied condensates were phenols, naphthalene and benzene. In the inorganic array, ammonia, sulphates and selected heavy metals and metalloids were identified as the dominant constituents. Except for benzene with its alkyl homologues (BTEX), selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), zinc and selenium, the values of the remaining parameters were considerably greater for the hard coal condensates. The studies revealed that all of the tested UCG condensates were extremely toxic to V. fischeri; however, the average toxicity level for the hard coal condensates was approximately 56% higher than that obtained for the lignite. The statistical analysis provided results supporting that the toxicity of the condensates was most positively correlated with the concentrations of free ammonia, phenols and certain heavy metals.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 11/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor