cis- and trans-acting elements involved in regulation of norB (norZ), the gene encoding nitric oxide reductase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
ABSTRACT The ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to reduce nitric oxide (NO) may have important immunomodulatory effects on the host during infection. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the nitric oxide reductase gene (norB) needs to be elucidated. To accomplish this, we analysed the functional regions of the norB upstream region. The promoter contains an extended -10 motif (TGNTACAAT) that is required for high-level expression. Deletion and substitution analysis of the norB upstream region revealed that no sequence upstream of the -10 motif is involved in norB regulation under anaerobic conditions or in the presence of NO. However, replacement of a 29 bp inverted repeat sequence immediately downstream of the extended -10 motif gave high levels of aerobic expression of a norB : : lacZ fusion. Insertional inactivation of gonococcal nsrR, predicted to bind to this inverted repeat sequence, resulted in the loss of norB repression and eliminated NO induction capacity. Single-copy complementation of nsrR in trans restored regulation of both norB transcription and NorB activity by NO. In Escherichia coli, expression of a gonococcal nsrR gene repressed gonococcal norB; induction of norB occurred in the presence of exogenously added NO. NsrR also regulates aniA and dnrN, as well as its own expression. We also determined that Fur regulates norB by a novel indirect activation method, by preventing the binding of a gonococcal ArsR homologue, a second repressor whose putative binding site overlaps the Fur binding site.
Article: Structural alterations in a component of cytochrome c oxidase and molecular evolution of pathogenic Neisseria in humans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three closely related bacterial species within the genus Neisseria are of importance to human disease and health. Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of meningitis, while Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea and Neisseria lactamica is a common, harmless commensal of children. Comparative genomics have yet to yield clear insights into which factors dictate the unique host-parasite relationships exhibited by each since, as a group, they display remarkable conservation at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene content and synteny. Here, we discovered two rare alterations in the gene encoding the CcoP protein component of cytochrome cbb(3) oxidase that are phylogenetically informative. One is a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in CcoP truncation that acts as a molecular signature for the species N. meningitidis. We go on to show that the ancestral ccoP gene arose by a unique gene duplication and fusion event and is specifically and completely distributed within species of the genus Neisseria. Surprisingly, we found that strains engineered to express either of the two CcoP forms conditionally differed in their capacity to support nitrite-dependent, microaerobic growth mediated by NirK, a nitrite reductase. Thus, we propose that changes in CcoP domain architecture and ensuing alterations in function are key traits in successive, adaptive radiations within these metapopulations. These findings provide a dramatic example of how rare changes in core metabolic proteins can be connected to significant macroevolutionary shifts. They also show how evolutionary change at the molecular level can be linked to metabolic innovation and its reversal as well as demonstrating how genotype can be used to infer alterations of the fitness landscape within a single host.PLoS Pathogens 01/2010; 6(8):e1001055. · 9.13 Impact Factor
Article: Nitrite and nitrite reductases: from molecular mechanisms to significance in human health and disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitrite, previously considered physiologically irrelevant and a simple end product of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, is now envisaged as a reservoir of NO to be activated in response to oxygen (O(2)) depletion. In the first part of this review, we summarize and compare the mechanisms of nitrite-dependent production of NO in selected bacteria and in eukaryotes. Bacterial nitrite reductases, which are copper or heme-containing enzymes, play an important role in the adaptation of pathogens to O(2) limitation and enable microrganisms to survive in the human body. In mammals, reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions is carried out in tissues and blood by an array of metalloproteins, including heme-containing proteins and molybdenum enzymes. In humans, tissues play a more important role in nitrite reduction, not only because most tissues produce more NO than blood, but also because deoxyhemoglobin efficiently scavenges NO in blood. In the second part of the review, we outline the significance of nitrite in human health and disease and describe the recent advances and pitfalls of nitrite-based therapy, with special attention to its application in cardiovascular disorders, inflammation, and anti-bacterial defence. It can be concluded that nitrite (as well as nitrate-rich diet for long-term applications) may hold promise as therapeutic agent in vascular dysfunction and ischemic injury, as well as an effective compound able to promote angiogenesis.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 02/2012; 17(4):684-716. · 8.20 Impact Factor