The effects of bone remodeling inhibition by alendronate on three-dimensional microarchitecture of subchondral bone tissues in guinea pig primary osteoarthrosis.
ABSTRACT We assessed whether increase of subchondral bone density enhances cartilage stress during impact loading, leading to progressive cartilage degeneration and accelerated osteoarthrosis (OA) progression. Sixty-six male guinea pigs were randomly divided into six groups. During a 9-week treatment period, four groups received twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of alendronate (ALN) in two doses: two groups received 10 microg/kg and two groups received 50 microg/kg. The two control groups received vehicle. After 9 weeks, one 10 microg/kg ALN group, one 50 microg/kg ALN group, and one control group were killed. The remaining three groups (17-week groups) were left for an additional 8 weeks, receiving the same treatment regimen before death. The left proximal tibiae were scanned by micro-computed tomography to quantify the microarchitecture of subchondral bone, followed by mechanical testing and determination of collagen and mineral. The control groups had typical OA-related cartilage degeneration at 9 and 17 weeks, whereas the 50 microg/kg ALN group had even worse degeneration in the medial condyle. It is unclear whether there is a direct or a secondary effect of ALN on the cartilage. The 9-week ALN group had significantly greater subchondral plate thickness. The 9- and 17-week groups had similar changes of cancellous bone microarchitecture, with greater volume fraction and connectivity and an extremely plate-like structure. The 9-week ALN group had greater bone mineral concentration, and the 17-week ALN group had reduced collagen concentration and greater mineral concentration. Treatment with ALN did not significantly change the mechanical properties of the cancellous bone.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of alendronate (ALN) on the subchondral bone quality and cartilage degeneration in the early phase of experimental model of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT). Thirty male adult healthy Japanese white rabbits after right ACLT or sham operation were divided into three groups (n = 10 per group): Sham; ACLT + ALN [after ACLT, the rabbits were treated with ALN daily starting from 4 days after surgery (10 μg/kg/d subcutaneously)]; and ACLT + NS group (after ACLT, the rabbits were injected saline as a placebo). At 60 days postsurgery, specimens from the affected knees were harvested. Histological analysis (HE and Safranin-O staining) as well as Mankin score were carried out to assess the cartilage degradation. BMP-2 and MMP-13 immunohistochemistry were also performed to demonstrate the alterations of cartilage molecular metabolism. Subchondral bone quality was evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure histomorphometry assay. For bone mineral density evaluation, 1/4 distal femurs, medial and lateral regions of femoral condylus were scanned with dual X-ray absorptiometry to assess the subchondral bone mass. Giemsa, von Kossa stain, and fluorescence technique for undecalcified bone section were carried out to examine the morphometry of the subchondral trabecular bone and subchondral plate. Histological and Mankin score analyses displayed that ALN treatment markedly reduced cartilage lesions and delayed the cartilage degeneration in OA joints. Immunohistochemistry assay further indicated that this cartilage-protective role of ALN was associated with elevating BMP-2 while inhibiting MMP-13 expression. BMD assessment demonstrated that ALN treatment significantly suppressed subchondral bone resorption. The results from histomorphometry assay of subchondral bone revealed that ALN treatment markedly increased the percent trabecular area (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N). Moreover, both thickness and the porosity of the subchondral plate in ACLT + ALN group presented significantly higher than that in ACLT + NS group, while no significant difference was found between ACLT + ALN and Sham group. ALN plays an important role in cartilage protection in OA joints that is associated with the improvement of subchondral bone quality through reduction of subchondral bone resorption. ALN could be potentially used as a disease-modifying strategy to limit the progression of OA.Clinical and Experimental Medicine 02/2011; 11(4):235-43. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphocitrate (PC) inhibited meniscal calcification and the development of calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to examine the biological activities of PC in the absence of calcium crystals and test the hypothesis that PC is potentially a meniscal protective agent. We found that PC downregulated the expression of many genes classified in cell proliferation, ossification, prostaglandin metabolic process, and wound healing, including bloom syndrome RecQ helicase-like, cell division cycle 7 homolog, cell division cycle 25 homolog C, ankylosis progressive homolog, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases-1/cyclooxygenase-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase receptor. In contrast, PC stimulated the expression of many genes classified in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, collagen fibril organization, and extracellular structure organization, including fibroblast growth factor 7, collagen type I, alpha 1, and collagen type XI, alpha 1. Consistent with its effect on the expression of genes classified in cell proliferation, collagen fibril organization, and ossification, PC inhibited the proliferation of OA meniscal cells and meniscal cell-mediated calcification while stimulating the production of collagens. These findings indicate that PC is potentially a meniscal-protective agent and a disease-modifying drug for arthritis associated with severe meniscal degeneration.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:726581.
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ABSTRACT: To describe the age-related changes of articular cartilage, subchondral bone morphology, and stiffness. Furthermore, to investigate whether subchondral bone histological and mechanical properties and meniscal histological properties are related to articular cartilage damage in the Dunkin Hartley guinea pig model of osteoarthritis (OA). Forty male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs aged 2, 6, 9, and 12 months were studied. The right stifle joints and the left menisci were embedded undecalcified and the tibial articular cartilage and subchondral bone and the menisci were examined using histology. The stiffness of the left tibial subchondral bone was determined with indentation testing. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grade of the osteoarthritic cartilage lesions of the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p < 0.001) condyle and the ossification of the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p < 0.001) meniscus increased significantly with age and was significantly more pronounced at the medial condyle than at the lateral condyle. The grade of the osteoarthritic cartilage lesions was significantly correlated (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) with the meniscal ossification, weakly correlated (r = 0.34, p < 0.007) with the subchondral bone plate thickness, and not correlated with the subchondral bone density (r = -0.010, p = 0.94) and the subchondral bone stiffness (r = -0.13, p = 0.30). The meniscal ossification observed in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA in these animals.Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 06/2011; 40(5):391-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor