The effects of bone remodeling inhibition by alendronate on three-dimensional microarchitecture of subchondral bone tissues in guinea pig primary osteoarthrosis.
ABSTRACT We assessed whether increase of subchondral bone density enhances cartilage stress during impact loading, leading to progressive cartilage degeneration and accelerated osteoarthrosis (OA) progression. Sixty-six male guinea pigs were randomly divided into six groups. During a 9-week treatment period, four groups received twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of alendronate (ALN) in two doses: two groups received 10 microg/kg and two groups received 50 microg/kg. The two control groups received vehicle. After 9 weeks, one 10 microg/kg ALN group, one 50 microg/kg ALN group, and one control group were killed. The remaining three groups (17-week groups) were left for an additional 8 weeks, receiving the same treatment regimen before death. The left proximal tibiae were scanned by micro-computed tomography to quantify the microarchitecture of subchondral bone, followed by mechanical testing and determination of collagen and mineral. The control groups had typical OA-related cartilage degeneration at 9 and 17 weeks, whereas the 50 microg/kg ALN group had even worse degeneration in the medial condyle. It is unclear whether there is a direct or a secondary effect of ALN on the cartilage. The 9-week ALN group had significantly greater subchondral plate thickness. The 9- and 17-week groups had similar changes of cancellous bone microarchitecture, with greater volume fraction and connectivity and an extremely plate-like structure. The 9-week ALN group had greater bone mineral concentration, and the 17-week ALN group had reduced collagen concentration and greater mineral concentration. Treatment with ALN did not significantly change the mechanical properties of the cancellous bone.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphocitrate (PC), a calcification inhibitor, inhibits the development of crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its disease-modifying effect remain elusive. This study sought to test the hypothesis that PC has calcium crystal-independent biological activities which are, at least in part, responsible for its disease-modifying activity. We found that PC inhibited the proliferation of OA fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the absence of calcium crystals. Consistent with its effect on cell proliferation, PC downregulated the expression of numerous genes classified in cell proliferation. PC also downregulated the expression of many genes classified in angiogenesis and inflammatory response including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, interleukin-1 receptor, type I, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In contrast, PC upregulated the expression of many genes classified in musculoskeletal tissue development, including aggrecan, type I collagen, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5. These findings suggest that PC is not only a promising disease-modifying drug for crystal-associated OA but also for noncrystal-associated OA.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:326267.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphocitrate (PC) inhibited meniscal calcification and the development of calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to examine the biological activities of PC in the absence of calcium crystals and test the hypothesis that PC is potentially a meniscal protective agent. We found that PC downregulated the expression of many genes classified in cell proliferation, ossification, prostaglandin metabolic process, and wound healing, including bloom syndrome RecQ helicase-like, cell division cycle 7 homolog, cell division cycle 25 homolog C, ankylosis progressive homolog, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases-1/cyclooxygenase-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase receptor. In contrast, PC stimulated the expression of many genes classified in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, collagen fibril organization, and extracellular structure organization, including fibroblast growth factor 7, collagen type I, alpha 1, and collagen type XI, alpha 1. Consistent with its effect on the expression of genes classified in cell proliferation, collagen fibril organization, and ossification, PC inhibited the proliferation of OA meniscal cells and meniscal cell-mediated calcification while stimulating the production of collagens. These findings indicate that PC is potentially a meniscal-protective agent and a disease-modifying drug for arthritis associated with severe meniscal degeneration.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:726581.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate whether treatment with a bisphosphonate would influence the subchondral bone plate stiffness and the development of cartilage damage in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, which develop osteoarthritis (OA) spontaneously. Method: Fifty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into a baseline group and six groups receiving either the bisphosphonate risedronate (30 µg/kg) or vehicle five times a week for 6, 12, or 24 weeks. The medial condyle of the right stifle joint was investigated by histology, using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score, along with static and dynamic histomorphometry. The subchondral bone plate of the left tibia was tested mechanically with indentation testing. Degradation products of C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen (CTX-II) were measured in serum. Results: The OARSI score did not differ between risedronate-treated and control animals at any time point. The fraction of bone surfaces covered with osteoclasts (Oc.S/BS) was significantly suppressed in risedronate-treated animals at all time points, as were the fractions of mineralizing surfaces (MS/BS) and osteoid-covered surfaces (OS/BS), and also serum CTX-II. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the epiphyseal content of calcified tissue and in the thickness of the subchondral bone plate. However, this did not result in a stiffer subchondral bone at any time point. Discussion: The risedronate treatment inhibited osteoclastic resorption of calcified cartilage in the primary spongiosa under the epiphyseal growth plate, explaining the risedronate-mediated decrease in CTX-II. Moreover, the serum CTX-II level was not related to the OA-induced articular cartilage degradation seen in this model. Conclusions: Risedronate did not influence the OARSI score and subchondral plate stiffness, but decreased serum CTX-II in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs.Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 03/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor