The Effects of Bone Remodeling Inhibition by Alendronate on Three-Dimensional Microarchitecture of Subchondral Bone Tissues in Guinea Pig Primary Osteoarthrosis
ABSTRACT We assessed whether increase of subchondral bone density enhances cartilage stress during impact loading, leading to progressive cartilage degeneration and accelerated osteoarthrosis (OA) progression. Sixty-six male guinea pigs were randomly divided into six groups. During a 9-week treatment period, four groups received twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of alendronate (ALN) in two doses: two groups received 10 microg/kg and two groups received 50 microg/kg. The two control groups received vehicle. After 9 weeks, one 10 microg/kg ALN group, one 50 microg/kg ALN group, and one control group were killed. The remaining three groups (17-week groups) were left for an additional 8 weeks, receiving the same treatment regimen before death. The left proximal tibiae were scanned by micro-computed tomography to quantify the microarchitecture of subchondral bone, followed by mechanical testing and determination of collagen and mineral. The control groups had typical OA-related cartilage degeneration at 9 and 17 weeks, whereas the 50 microg/kg ALN group had even worse degeneration in the medial condyle. It is unclear whether there is a direct or a secondary effect of ALN on the cartilage. The 9-week ALN group had significantly greater subchondral plate thickness. The 9- and 17-week groups had similar changes of cancellous bone microarchitecture, with greater volume fraction and connectivity and an extremely plate-like structure. The 9-week ALN group had greater bone mineral concentration, and the 17-week ALN group had reduced collagen concentration and greater mineral concentration. Treatment with ALN did not significantly change the mechanical properties of the cancellous bone.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphocitrate (PC), a calcification inhibitor, inhibits the development of crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its disease-modifying effect remain elusive. This study sought to test the hypothesis that PC has calcium crystal-independent biological activities which are, at least in part, responsible for its disease-modifying activity. We found that PC inhibited the proliferation of OA fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the absence of calcium crystals. Consistent with its effect on cell proliferation, PC downregulated the expression of numerous genes classified in cell proliferation. PC also downregulated the expression of many genes classified in angiogenesis and inflammatory response including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, interleukin-1 receptor, type I, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In contrast, PC upregulated the expression of many genes classified in musculoskeletal tissue development, including aggrecan, type I collagen, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5. These findings suggest that PC is not only a promising disease-modifying drug for crystal-associated OA but also for noncrystal-associated OA.02/2013; 2013:326267. DOI:10.1155/2013/326267
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ABSTRACT: Cartilage and subchondral bone have recently been considered an osteochondral unit. The treatment of osteochondral lesions is still challenging, but better subchondral bone repair may result in higher quality repaired cartilage. Alendronate accelerates bone formation in osteochondral defects and affects the quality of the repaired cartilage. Controlled laboratory study. Osteochondral defects were made on the left trochleas of 50 rabbits, which were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control, ALN (weekly subcutaneous injection of 0.14 mg/mL alendronate), and ALN-S (alendronate injection in the first 8 weeks only). They were evaluated at 4, 8, 24, and 52 weeks. Bone repair was evaluated with microcomputed tomography and histologic evaluation. Cartilage repair was evaluated with ultrasound and histologic analyses. At 4 weeks, the defects were filled, and cartilage-like repair tissue was observed in the ALN group, whereas the defects were incompletely filled in the control group. Alendronate treatment enhanced early bone formation and mineralization in the osteochondral defect for the first 8 weeks. The continuous injection of alendronate for 24 weeks resulted in delayed bone remodeling, but the rabbits in the ALN-S group showed good integrity of the subchondral bone plate, without delayed remodeling. At 52 weeks, the ALN-S group had a columnar arrangement of chondrocytes that had less fibrillation and looked superior to those in the ALN and control groups. Ultrasound analysis showed better quality of repaired cartilage of the ALN and ALN-S group than the control group. Alendronate accelerated bone formation without inhibiting its mineralization but thereafter inhibited bone remodeling in an osteochondral defect. The withdrawal of alendronate at 8 weeks avoided the delayed remodeling and showed better subchondral bone repair. At 52 weeks, better subchondral bone repair resulted in better cartilage quality. Alendronate administered in the early period accelerates bone formation and improves the quality of the repaired cartilage.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2009; 37 Suppl 1:139S-47S. DOI:10.1177/0363546509350984 · 4.70 Impact Factor