Houston DK, Nicklas BJ, Ding J, et al, Health ABC Study. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study
ABSTRACT Dietary surveys suggest that many older, community-dwelling adults consume insufficient dietary protein, which may contribute to the age-related loss of lean mass (LM).
The objective of the study was to determine the association between dietary protein and changes in total LM and nonbone appendicular LM (aLM) in older, community-dwelling men and women.
Dietary protein intake was assessed by using an interviewer-administered 108-item food-frequency questionnaire in men and women aged 70-79 y who were participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study (n=2066). Changes in LM and aLM over 3 y were measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The association between protein intake and 3-y changes in LM and aLM was examined by using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders.
After adjustment for potential confounders, energy-adjusted protein intake was associated with 3-y changes in LM [beta (SE): 8.76 (3.00), P=0.004] and aLM [beta (SE): 5.31 (1.64), P=0.001]. Participants in the highest quintile of protein intake lost approximately 40% less LM and aLM than did those in the lowest quintile of protein intake (x+/-SE: -0.501+/-0.106 kg compared with -0.883+/-0.104 kg for LM; -0.400+/-0.058 kg compared with -0.661+/-0.057 kg for aLM; P for trend<0.01). The associations were attenuated slightly after adjustment for change in fat mass, but the results remained significant.
Dietary protein may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia in older adults and should be studied further to determine its effects on preserving LM in this population.
- SourceAvailable from: Stuart M Phillips
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- "As such, it has been suggested that the protein needs of older adults are greater than those of younger individuals (0.8 g/kg BW/day) and protein intakes of 1.0 to 1.5 g protein/kg BW/day are recommended for this population (Wolfe and others 2008; Bauer and others 2013). However, while data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that adults are meeting, and even exceeding, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein by consuming about 1.3 g protein/kg BW/day (Fulgoni 2008), older adults are not consuming adequate amounts of protein, with one-third not meeting the RDA for protein and up to 10% of older women not even meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 0.66 g/kg BW/day) (Houston and others 2008; Volpi and others 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is an integral body tissue playing key roles in strength, performance, physical function, and metabolic regulation. It is essential for athletes to ensure that they have optimal amounts of muscle mass to ensure peak performance in their given sport. However, the role of maintaining muscle mass during weight loss and as we age is an emerging concept, having implications in chronic disease prevention, functional capacity, and quality of life. Higher-protein diets have been shown to: (1) promote gains in muscle mass, especially when paired with resistance training; (2) spare muscle mass loss during caloric restriction; and (3) attenuate the natural loss of muscle mass that accompanies aging. Protein quality is important to the gain and maintenance of muscle mass. Protein quality is a function of protein digestibility, amino acid content, and the resulting amino acid availability to support metabolic function. Whey protein is one of the highest-quality proteins given its amino acid content (high essential, branched-chain, and leucine amino acid content) and rapid digestibility. Consumption of whey protein has a robust ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. In fact, whey protein has been found to stimulate muscle protein synthesis to a greater degree than other proteins such as casein and soy. This review examines the existing data supporting the role for protein consumption, with an emphasis on whey protein, in the regulation of muscle mass and body composition in response to resistance training, caloric restriction, and aging. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®Journal of Food Science 03/2015; 80(S1). DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.12802 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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- "Substituting red meat with healthier (vegetable) proteins sources such as beans, lentils, tofu, and nuts could be recommended (Pan et al., 2012). Some studies suggest that an increased protein intake can be protective in the elderly, reducing the risk of sarcopenia for example (Houston et al., 2008; Meng et al., 2009). While there is suggestive evidence that a higher protein intake can protect against sarcopenia in the elderly, there is no conclusive evidence that an increased protein intake reduces frailty or lowers overall mortality in older people "
ABSTRACT: Many diets and nutritional advice are circulating, often based on short- or medium-term clinical trials and primary outcomes, like changes in LDL cholesterol or weight. It remains difficult to assess which dietary interventions can be effective in the long term to reduce the risk of aging-related disease and increase the (healthy) lifespan. At the same time, the scientific discipline that studies the aging process has identified some important nutrient-sensing pathways that modulate the aging process, such as the mTOR and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway. A thorough understanding of the aging process can help assessing the efficacy of dietary interventions aimed at reducing the risk of aging-related diseases. To come to these insights, a synthesis of biogerontological, nutritional, and medical knowledge is needed, which can be framed in a new discipline called 'nutrigerontology'. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Aging cell 12/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1111/acel.12284 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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- "Older adults who consumed 1.1 g protein/kg body weight/day lost less lean body mass (muscle) than did those who consumed only 0.7e0.9 g protein/kg body weight/day . Among hospitalized older patients, at least 1.1 g protein/kg body weight/day was needed to achieve nitrogen balance, and safe intake was up to 1.6 g protein/kg body weight/day . "
ABSTRACT: The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made (a) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0-1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day, (b) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (c) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible.Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 04/2014; 33(6). DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.04.007 · 4.48 Impact Factor