The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome

The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Core Endocrine Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 01/2008; 87(1):79-90.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Whole-grain foods are associated in observational studies with a lower body mass index and lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, few clinical trials have tested whether incorporating whole grains into a hypocaloric diet increases weight loss and improves CVD risk factors.
The aim of this study was to determine whether including whole-grain foods in a hypocaloric (reduced by 500 kcal/d) diet enhances weight loss and improves CVD risk factors.
Obese adults (25 M, 25 F) with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive dietary advice either to avoid whole-grain foods or to obtain all of their grain servings from whole grains for 12 wk. All participants were given the same dietary advice in other respects for weight loss.
Body weight, waist circumference, and percentage body fat decreased significantly (P<0.001) in both groups over the study period, but there was a significantly (P=0.03) greater decrease in percentage body fat in the abdominal region in the whole-grain group than in the refined-grain group. C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased 38% in the whole-grain group independent of weight loss but was unchanged in the refined-grain group (P=0.01 for group x time interaction). Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decreased in both diet groups (P<0.05). Dietary fiber and magnesium intakes increased in the whole-grain but not the refined-grain group (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively, for group x time interaction).
Both hypocaloric diets were effective means of improving CVD risk factors with moderate weight loss. There were significantly (P<0.05) greater decreases in CRP and percentage body fat in the abdominal region in participants consuming whole grains than in those consuming refined grains.

Download full-text


Available from: Laurence Demers, Jul 28, 2015
  • Source
    • "Some clinical trials have shown an improvement in insulin sensitivity [2e4], while other studies have reported no effect on either glucose or insulin metabolism [5e7]. Similarly, there is conflicting data on the effects of increased whole-grain consumption on markers of inflammation [8] [9]. As for the effects of whole-grain consumption on lipid metabolism, there is general consensus that whole-grain cereals rich in b-glucans , such as oats and barley, are able to reduce fasting plasma concentrations of both total and LDL cholesterol [10] [11]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Until recently, very few intervention studies have investigated the effects of whole-grain cereals on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, and the existing studies have provided mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week intervention with either a whole-grain-based or a refined cereal-based diet on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-one men and women age range 40-65 years, with the metabolic syndrome were recruited to participate in this study using a parallel group design. After a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to a 12-week diet based on whole-grain products (whole-grain group) or refined cereal products (control group). Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the intervention, both fasting and 3 h after a lunch, to measure biochemical parameters. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used for between-group comparisons. Overall, 26 participants in the control group and 28 in the whole-grain group completed the dietary intervention. Drop-outs (five in the control and two in the whole-grain group) did not affect randomization. After 12 weeks, postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses (evaluated as average change 2 and 3 h after the meal, respectively) decreased by 29% and 43%, respectively, in the whole-grain group compared to the run-in period. Postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses were significantly lower at the end of the intervention in the whole-grain group compared to the control group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05; respectively) whereas there was no change in postprandial response of glucose and other parameters evaluated. A twelve week whole-grain cereal-based diet, compared to refined cereals, reduced postprandial insulin and triglycerides responses. This finding may have implications for type 2 diabetes risk and cardiovascular disease.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 01/2014; 24(8). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.01.007 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Seshadri et al 22 , 2004, NCEP/ATPIII 2001 Low-calorie high carbohydrates (n=19) Low-calorie diet (n=17) 6 16.4% Esposito ET al 17 , 2004, NCEP/ATPIII 2001 Mediterranean low-calorie diet (n=90) General Guidelines (n=90) 24 48.8% Azadbakht et al 28 , 2005, NCEP/ATPIII 2001 Low-calorie diet DASH (n=38) Low-calorie diet (n=38) 6 19.8% Muzio et al 18 , 2007, NCEP/ATPIII 2001 Low-calorie high carbohydrates (n=50) Low-calorie high carbohydrates (n=50) 5 23.3% Katcher et al 23 , 2008, NCEP/ATPIII 2001 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is no consensus on the most appropriate nutritional strategy for treating metabolic syndrome (MS), such that cardiovascular risk is reduced. This study was designed to assess the strength of evidence of the benefits of various nutritional interventions in MS remission. Performed in Medline, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases, the virtual search consisted of randomized clinical trials published between 1999 and 2009 in any language, studies involving individuals aged 18 or older and diagnosed with MS, regardless of the criterion. The Boolean operator and was used in the combination of the MeSH terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Metabolic x Syndrome" and "Metabolic Syndrome X", the entry terms "Dysmetabolic Syndrome X", Metabolic Cardiovascular Syndrome," "Metabolic X Syndrome" and "Syndrome X, Metabolic", plus the terms "diet", "intervention and diet", "treatment and diet" and "supplementation". For each study included in the review, we estimated the prevalence of MS and the calculation of effectiveness after the follow-up period. Relative risk measures for each study were described by Forest Plot. We identified 131 articles, which, after eligibility criteria, resulted in 15 studies. These studies were divided into four groups: normocaloric diet associated with exercise; isolated normocaloric diet, low-calorie diet combined with exercises; and isolated low-calorie diet. Tests with low-calorie diet associated with exercising revealed higher efficiency values, helping to emphasize the global aspects of lifestyle change in the treatment of MS, in which healthy and low-calorie diet should be complemented with the practice of physical activity.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 09/2011; 97(3):260-5. · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "There is convincing evidence that the consumption of whole grain foods is associated with reduced incidences of chronic diseases , including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers (Katcher and others 2008). In addition to dietary fiber, various phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals have been suggested to contribute to the health effects of whole grain foods (Slavin 2003). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life-years. Effective prevention needs a global strategy based on knowledge of the importance of risk factors, including diet. Recent years have seen increased interest on the part of consumers, researchers, and the food industry into how food products can help maintain the health of an individual. Extracts rich in dietary fiber obtained from plants could be used as functional ingredients because they provide numerous health benefits that go far beyond supporting bowel regularity. These benefits may include not only digestive health, but weight management, cardiovascular health, and general wellness. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the potential of different types of fiber as a technological tool for its application to functional foods to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through diet.
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 03/2010; 9(2):240-258. DOI:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00102.x · 3.54 Impact Factor
Show more